dcsimg

Description

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Annuals or biennials, 10–140(–200) cm. Stem bases soft to hard, herbaceous, often hollow. Leaves: blades of mid cauline spatulate or oblong to obovate or lanceolate, 6–35 × 1–15 cm, bases auriculate, auricles deltate to lanceolate, ± straight, acute, margins usually pinnately (often runcinately) lobed, lobes ± deltate to lanceolate, not constricted at bases, terminals usually larger than laterals, entire or dentate. Peduncles usually glabrous, sometimes stipi-tate-glandular. Involucres 9–13+ mm. Phyllaries usually glabrous, sometimes tomentose and/or stipitate-glandular. Corollas: ligules ± equaling tubes. Cypselae dark brown, mostly oblanceoloid, 2.5–3.5+ mm, ribs 2–4 on each face, faces transversely rugulose or tuberculate across and between ribs; pappi 5–8 mm. 2n = 32, 36.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 19: 273, 274, 275 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Distribution

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A cosmopolitan weed.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Elevation Range

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2300-2800 m
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
author
K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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eFloras.org
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Derivation of specific name

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
oleraceus: vegetable-garden herb used in cooking
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Sonchus oleraceus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=162170
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Tall annual weed ( up to 1.2 m). A native of Europe and North Africa but now a near cosmopolitan weed.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Sonchus oleraceus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=162170
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Frequency

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Common
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cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Sonchus oleraceus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=162170
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
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visit source
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Worldwide distribution

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
A native of Europe and North Africa but now a near cosmopolitan weed.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Sonchus oleraceus L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=162170
author
Mark Hyde
author
Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
original
visit source
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Sonchus oleraceus

provided by wikipedia EN

Sonchus oleraceus is a species of flowering plant in the dandelion tribe Cichorieae of the daisy family Asteraceae, native to Europe and Western Asia. It has many common names including common sowthistle,[2] sow thistle,[3] smooth sow thistle, annual sow thistle, hare's colwort, hare's thistle, milky tassel, milk thistle.[4] and soft thistle.[4]

Its specific epithet oleraceus means "vegetable/herbal".[5][6][a] The common name 'sow thistle' refers to its attractiveness to pigs, and the similarity of the leaf to younger thistle plants. The common name 'hare's thistle' refers to its purported beneficial effects on hare and rabbits.[7]

Botanical characteristics

This annual plant has a hollow, upright stem up to 30–100 cm high.[8] It prefers full sun, and can tolerate most soil conditions. The flowers are hermaphroditic, and common pollinators include bees and flies.[9] It spreads by seeds being carried by wind or water.

This plant is considered an invasive species in many parts of the world, where it is found mostly in disturbed areas.[10][11] In Australia it is a common and widespread invasive species, with large infestations a serious problem in crops.[12]

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Runcinate leaf
Flower of Sonchus oleraceus.jpg

Cuisine

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Green salad with carrot, cucumber, onion, sowthistle leaves, and tomato slices

Leaves are eaten as salad greens or cooked like spinach. This is one of the species used in Chinese cuisine as kŭcài (苦菜; lit. bitter vegetable). The younger leaves are less bitter and better to eat raw. Steaming can remove the bitterness of older leaves.[13] The younger roots are also edible and can suffice as a coffee substitute.[14]

Nutritive qualities

Nutritional analysis reveals 30 – 40 mg of vitamin C per 100g, 1.2% protein, 0.3% fat, 2.4% carbohydrate. Leaf dry matter analysis per 100g (likely to vary with growing conditions) shows: 45g Carbohydrate, 28g protein, 22g ash, 5.9g fibre, 4.5g fat; in all, providing 265 calories.

Minerals

  • Calcium: 1500 mg
  • Phosphorus: 500 mg
  • Iron: 45.6 mg
  • Magnesium: 0 mg
  • Sodium: 0 mg
  • Potassium: 0 mg
  • Zinc: 0 mg

Vitamins

  • A: 35 mg
  • Thiamine (B1): 1.5 mg
  • Riboflavin (B2): 5 mg
  • Niacin: 5 mg
  • B6: 0 mg
  • C: 60 mg

Herbalism

Sonchus oleraceus has a variety of uses in herbalism. It also has been ascribed medicinal qualities similar to dandelion and succory.[7] The early Māori people of New Zealand are likely to have gathered it for food and medical use.[15]

Native Americans had many uses for this plant. Pima used its gum as a "cure for the opium habit," as a cathartic, and as a food, where the "{l}eaves and stems {were} rubbed between the palms of the hands and eaten raw" and sometimes "boiled." The Yaqui used the plant as a vegetable, where the "{t}ender, young leaves boiled in salted water with chile and eaten as greens." The Kamia (Kumeyaay) "boiled {the} leaves {and} used {it} for food as greens." The {Houma} used it as an abortifacient where an "{i}nfusion of {the} plant {was} taken to 'make tardy menstruation come;'" an antidiarrheal; for children that were teething; and as hog feed.[16]

Control

This plant can often be controlled by mowing, because it does not regrow from root fragments.[11] Attempts at weed control by herbicide, to the neglect of other methods, may have led to proliferation of this species in some environments.[17]

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ For the generic name's etymology, see Sonchus.

Citations

  1. ^ The Plant List, Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.
  2. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Sonchus oleraceus". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  3. ^ Sonchus oleraceus at Plants For A Future
  4. ^ a b International Environmental Weed Foundation, retrieved 24 December 2015
  5. ^ Parker, Peter (2018). A Little Book of Latin for Gardeners. Little Brown Book Group. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-4087-0615-2. oleraceus, holeraceus = relating to vegetables or kitchen garden
  6. ^ Whitney, William Dwight (1899). The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia. Century Co. p. 2856. L. holeraceus, prop. oleraceus, herb-like, holus, prop. olus (oler-), herbs, vegetables
  7. ^ a b "A Modern Herbal | Sow-Thistles". Botanical.com. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
  8. ^ Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Van Ke, Nguyen (2007). Edible Wild Plants of Vietnam: The Bountiful Garden. Thailand: Orchid Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-9745240896.
  9. ^ "Sonchus oleraceus Sow Thistle, Common sowthistle PFAF Plant Database".
  10. ^ Sonchus oleraceus Archived 2007-04-28 at the Wayback Machine at Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants Archived 2007-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ a b Sonchus oleraceus L., Asteraceae, Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
  12. ^ "Common sowthistle Sonchus oleraceus". Weeds Australia. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  13. ^ Nyerges, Christopher (2016). Foraging Wild Edible Plants of North America: More than 150 Delicious Recipes Using Nature's Edibles. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-4930-1499-6.
  14. ^ Nyerges, Christopher (2017). Foraging Washington: Finding, Identifying, and Preparing Edible Wild Foods. Guilford, CT: Falcon Guides. ISBN 978-1-4930-2534-3. OCLC 965922681.
  15. ^ Cambie, Richard C; Ferguson, Lynnette R (2003). "Potential functional foods in the traditional Maori diet". Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 523–524: 109–117. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00344-5. ISSN 0027-5107. PMID 12628508.
  16. ^ "BRIT - Native American Ethnobotany Database".
  17. ^ "Management of common sowthistle | Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry | Queensland Government". Dpi.qld.gov.au. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2013-01-16.

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Sonchus oleraceus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Sonchus oleraceus is a species of flowering plant in the dandelion tribe Cichorieae of the daisy family Asteraceae, native to Europe and Western Asia. It has many common names including common sowthistle, sow thistle, smooth sow thistle, annual sow thistle, hare's colwort, hare's thistle, milky tassel, milk thistle. and soft thistle.

Its specific epithet oleraceus means "vegetable/herbal". The common name 'sow thistle' refers to its attractiveness to pigs, and the similarity of the leaf to younger thistle plants. The common name 'hare's thistle' refers to its purported beneficial effects on hare and rabbits.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN