dcsimg

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Terrestrial plants. Rhizome erect or creeping; rhizome scales broad, mostly entire, concolorous. Fronds tufted, herbaceous. Stipe not articulated, often with persistent scales. Lamina broadly deltate to lanceolate, pinnate to quadripinnate, basal pinnae often basiscopically enlarged but not as long as the lamina. Lamina scales/hairs, if present, unistratose(1 layer) at the base. Ultimate segments crenate to serrate, rarely aristate-dentate. Veins free, forked. Sori round, superficial, dorsal, on veins end; indusia kidney-shaped to cordate, rarely exindusiate.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Dryopteris Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/genus.php?genus_id=68
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Dryopteris

provided by wikipedia EN
The moth genus Dryopteris is now considered a junior synonym of Oreta.

Dryopteris /drˈɒptərɪs/,[2] commonly called the wood ferns, male ferns (referring in particular to Dryopteris filix-mas), or buckler ferns, is a fern genus in the family Dryopteridaceae, subfamily Dryopteridoideae, according to the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I).[3] There are about 300-400 species in the genus.[1][3][4][5] The species are distributed in Asia, the Americas, Europe, Africa, and the Pacific islands, with the highest diversity in eastern Asia.[5][6] It is placed in the family Dryopteridaceae, subfamily Dryopteridoideae, according to the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I).[3] Many of the species have stout, slowly creeping rootstocks that form a crown, with a vase-like ring of fronds. The sori are round, with a peltate indusium. The stipes have prominent scales.

Hybridization and polyploidy are well-known phenomena in this group, with many species formed via these processes. The North American Dryopteris hybrid complex is a well-known example of speciation via allopolyploid hybridization.[7]

Selected species

The genus has a large number of species. The PPG I classification suggested there were about 400 species;[3] as of February 2020, the Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World listed 328 species and 83 hybrids.[1] Some genera sunk into Dryopteris, such as Dryopsis, Stenolepia and Nothoperanema, are distinguished by other sources.[1]

Ecology

Dryopteris species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Batrachedra sophroniella (which feeds exclusively on D. cyatheoides) and Sthenopiseauratus.

Cultivation and uses

Many Dryopteris species are widely used as garden ornamental plants, especially D. affinis, D. erythrosora, and D. filix-mas, with numerous cultivars.

Dryopteris filix-mas was throughout much of recent human history widely used as a vermifuge, and was the only fern listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. Traditional use in Scandinavia against red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation is to place fronds in nesting boxes under nesting material and under floor covering material.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Hassler, Michael & Schmitt, Bernd (January 2020). "Dryopteris". Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World. 8.20. Retrieved 2020-02-02.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ a b c d PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229. S2CID 39980610.
  4. ^ Zhang, Li-Bing; Zhang, Liang; Dong, Shi-Yong; Sessa, Emily B; Gao, Xin-Fen; Ebihara, Atsushi (2012). "Molecular circumscription and major evolutionary lineages of the fern genus Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae)". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 (1): 180. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-180. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 3483261. PMID 22971160.
  5. ^ a b Sessa, Emily B.; Zhang, Li-Bing; Väre, Henry; Juslén, Aino (2015-08-01). "What We Do (and Don't) Know About Ferns: Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae) as a Case Study". Systematic Botany. 40 (2): 387–399. doi:10.1600/036364415X688844. S2CID 86153986.
  6. ^ Sessa, Emily B.; Juslén, Aino; Väre, Henry; Chambers, Sally M. (March 2017). "Into Africa: Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of sub-Saharan African woodferns ( Dryopteris )". American Journal of Botany. 104 (3): 477–486. doi:10.3732/ajb.1600392. ISSN 0002-9122. PMID 28325830.
  7. ^ Sessa, Emily B; Zimmer, Elizabeth A; Givnish, Thomas J (2012). "Unraveling reticulate evolution in North American Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae)". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 (1): 104. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-104. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 3509404. PMID 22748145.

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Dryopteris: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
The moth genus Dryopteris is now considered a junior synonym of Oreta.

Dryopteris /draɪˈɒptərɪs/, commonly called the wood ferns, male ferns (referring in particular to Dryopteris filix-mas), or buckler ferns, is a fern genus in the family Dryopteridaceae, subfamily Dryopteridoideae, according to the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I). There are about 300-400 species in the genus. The species are distributed in Asia, the Americas, Europe, Africa, and the Pacific islands, with the highest diversity in eastern Asia. It is placed in the family Dryopteridaceae, subfamily Dryopteridoideae, according to the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I). Many of the species have stout, slowly creeping rootstocks that form a crown, with a vase-like ring of fronds. The sori are round, with a peltate indusium. The stipes have prominent scales.

Hybridization and polyploidy are well-known phenomena in this group, with many species formed via these processes. The North American Dryopteris hybrid complex is a well-known example of speciation via allopolyploid hybridization.

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