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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 56.3 years (captivity) Observations: These animals are known to have a long reproductive lifespan with reports of females over 40 years of age being able to lay eggs. One specimen lived 56.3 years in captivity (Brouwer et al. 2000).
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Untitled

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Probosciger aterrimus, is derived from the Greek words "proboscis" which means nose and "gero" which means to carry. The specific name is from the Latin "aterrimus," meaning very black.

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Ann Fraser, Kalamazoo College
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Behavior

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Palm cockatoos are one of the loudest parrot species, making loud whistling calls. The most common call heard is the contact call which is a disyllabic whistle. When they are alarmed they produce a sharp, harsh screech. Other calls include grunts, mournful/wailing cries, whistles, and screeches. Another way they communicate is by stomping noisily on a perch, using sticks or nuts to drum against the tree, sometimes up to 200 times. This is usually used to advertise territorial boundaries. Their cheeks will change color with mood, stress, and health. They also use their erectile crest to communicate mood.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Other Communication Modes: mimicry

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Conservation Status

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Palm cockatoos are considered near threatened or low risk due to the destruction of habitat with logging and seasonal fires. Additionally, in the 1970s, keeping palm cockatoos as pets became quite popular, and since then they have been the object of hunting for the aviary trade with the most popular tactic of capture involving arrows covered in sticky resin. There are now laws that prohibit the export of any palm cockatoo without a permit. Unfortunately, many are still illegally exported and sold as pets, and they do not survive well in captivity.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix i

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Benefits

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Because palm cockatoos take quickly to accepting food from humans, they are known to raid bird feeders. They may destroy wood decks and the paneling of houses.

Negative Impacts: household pest

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Benefits

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Palm cockatoos are sometimes kept as pets or in zoos because people enjoy the intelligence, sociality, and vocal dexterity of parrots. Unfortunately, trade in cockatoos sometimes harms wild populations.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; ecotourism ; research and education

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Associations

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Palm cockatoos aid in the dispersal of seeds for many fruit-bearing trees. Many plant species have evolved methods to attract large, frugivorous birds to further enhance the probability of seed dispersal.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Trophic Strategy

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Palm cockatoos mainly eat leaf buds, seeds, and fruits. They sometimes also eat insects and their larvae. They forage primarily in the forest canopy, but may also forage on the forest floor for fallen fruits and seeds. They crush seeds and hard fruits with their sharp, strong mandibles.

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore , Granivore )

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Distribution

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Palm cockatoos are found in the Australasian region, including New Guinea, the Cape York Peninsula (Northern Australia), Aru Islands, West Irian, Misool Isle (Western Papuan Islands) and other islands. There are three subspecies, P. a. atterimus, found in the Misool Isles, Aru Islands, and Northern Australia, P. a. goliath, the largest of the subspecies, found in Western Irian and the Papuan Islands, and finally P. a. stenolopus, in New Guinea and Western Irian.

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Habitat

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Palm cockatoos are found in rainforests, including gallery forests, forest edges, monsoon woodlands, eucalypt and paperbark woodlands, partly cleared areas, and dense savannas. They choose large trees for nesting and roosting. During the day they roost near food or water sources and at night roost in or near a nest tree.

Range elevation: 1300 (high) m.

Average elevation: below 750 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

Other Habitat Features: riparian

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Ann Fraser, Kalamazoo College
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Life Expectancy

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The lifespan of wild palm cockatoos is not well known. Other cockatoo species live from 40 to 60 years in the wild. Captive cockatoos may live to more than 100 years old.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
56.3 years.

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Morphology

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Palm cockatoos are the largest of all parrots, ranging from 49 to 68 cm in height. They weigh 500 to 1100 g, with females ranging from 500 to 950 g and males ranging from 540 to 1100 g. Wing length is around 35.1 cm, tail length 23.8 cm, bill length 9.1 cm, and tarsus length averages 3.5 cm.

Palm cockatoos are almost all black with a 15 cm erectile crest on their head. Their beaks never close completely, always revealing a bit of their black-tipped red tongues. This partly open mouth makes it easier for the birds to hold nuts in their mouth and crack them at the same time. Their strong mandibles are used for cracking nuts and are larger in males than in females. Their legs are grey/black with few feathers on their thighs and their red facial markings are their most distinguished characteristic. Their cheek skin changes color based on their health or level of stress so when highly stressed the skin will change color to a pink/beige, while when highly excited the skin changes to yellow. In young birds, the underfeathers are lined with a pale yellow and in very young birds (under 18 months old), the tip of the bill and the eye ring are white.

Range mass: 500 to 1100 g.

Range length: 49 to 68 cm.

Range wingspan: 70 to 100 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Associations

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Confirmed reports of predation on palm cockatoos was not found. However, common brushtail possums steal eggs from glossy black cockatoo nests, a close relative of palm cockatoos. Egg predation was found to greatly reduce the population size of the glossy black cockatoos. Arboreal snakes are also potential nest predators. Large birds of prey may take adults.

Competition between cockatoo species for nesting sites is high, and may result in egg or nestling death when cockatoo individuals fight over a nest.

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Reproduction

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During mating the male and female approach each other with wings extended. Before mating the male makes loud whistles and bows several times during which the skin on the face will usually become a deep red. Sometimes the male will also bang a stick against a tree while calling out, as a territorial gesture near the nesting sight. Palm cockatoos are monogamous and stay together for life.

Mating System: monogamous

The mating season varies with local climate, but is usually from August to January. Palm cockatoos cannot excavate their own nesting cavities. Instead they use previously hollowed cavities in large trees, such as palms. Their nesting holes tend to be about 1 m in depth and 25 to 60 cm in diameter are are lined with a pile of broken twigs at the bottom, upon which the egg rests. The same site is often used year after year.

Palm cockatoos lay one egg per clutch, which is incubated for 30 to 33 days. The newly hatched young are naked and helpless. They take 100 to 110 days to fledge, the longest period to fledging of any parrot species.

After leaving the nest, the young bird is dependent on the parents for at least another 6 weeks because of its inability to fly. After this, the young bird will be independent, but will stay relatively close to the parents until the next breeding season, whereupon the parents evict the previous year's young from their territory. Young birds are estimated to reach sexual maturity at 7 to 8 years old.

Breeding interval: Palm cockatoos breed once yearly.

Breeding season: The breeding season usually occurs between the months of August and January, but varies with local climate.

Average eggs per season: 1.

Range time to hatching: 30 to 35 days.

Range fledging age: 100 to 110 days.

Range time to independence: 142 to 152 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 7 to 8 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 7 to 8 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Although both parents participate in incubation, females incubate the egg more than males and males spend more of their time foraging for food. After hatching, chicks are brooded mostly by females. Males also brood the young, but are mainly responsible for finding food. After the chick leaves the nest, both parents provide food and protection for it until it is fully independent.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); post-independence association with parents

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Zingsheim, J. 2006. "Probosciger aterrimus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Probosciger_aterrimus.html
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Justine Zingsheim, Kalamazoo College
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Palm cockatoo

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The palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus), also known as the goliath cockatoo or great black cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black parrot of the cockatoo family native to New Guinea, Aru Islands, and Cape York Peninsula. It has a very large black beak and prominent red cheek patches.[3]

Taxonomy

The palm cockatoo was originally described by German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1788 as Psittacus aterrimus. Its specific name, Probosciger aterrimus, is from Latin proboscis, long thin nose + -ger, carry, and Latin superlative adjective for ater, black, hence a "black [bird] with a long thin nose (beak)".

The only member of the monotypic genus, Probosciger, the palm cockatoo is a member of the white cockatoo subfamily Cacatuinae.[4] Earlier limited genetic studies found it to be the earliest offshoot from the ancestors of what have become the cockatoo family.[5]

Four subspecies are recognized,[6] three poorly differentiated and one distinctive. The Cape York cockatoo (P. a. aterrimus), the larger goliath cockatoo (P. a. goliath), P. a. macgillivrayi, intermediate in size, and the northern palm cockatoo (P. a. stenolophus, similar to the goliath, but crest feathers are much narrower).[7]

"Palm cockatoo" has been designated the official name by the International Ornithological Committee (IOC).[6] The species was named the "Goliath Aratoo" in Wood's Natural History (1862). It is also sometimes given the misnomer "black macaw" in aviculture – the macaws are unrelated New World parrots. Confusingly, this name was also used by early naturalists and Brazilian natives to refer to the dark blue hyacinth macaw.

Description

The palm cockatoo is 55 to 60 cm (22 to 24 in) in length and weighs 910–1,200 g (2.01–2.65 lb).[8] It may be the largest cockatoo species and largest parrot in Australia, although large races of yellow-tailed black cockatoos and sulphur-crested cockatoos broadly overlap in size. It is a distinctive bird with a large crest and has one of the largest bills of any parrot (only the hyacinth macaw's is larger). This powerful bill enables palm cockatoos not only to eat very hard nuts and seeds, but also enables males to break off thick (about 1 in) sticks from live trees to use for a drumming display.[9] The male has a larger beak than the female.[8] The beak is unusual, as the lower and upper mandibles do not meet for much of its length, allowing the tongue to hold a nut against the top mandible while the lower mandible works to open it. The palm cockatoo also has a distinctive red cheek patch that changes colour when the bird is alarmed or excited.

The palm cockatoo has a large and complex vocal repertoire, including many whistles and even a "hello" call that sounds surprisingly human-like. Distinct dialects occur throughout the species' range.

Anecdotal evidence indicates a palm cockatoo reaching 80 or 90 years of age in an Australian zoo,[10] although the oldest confirmed individual was aged 56 in London Zoo in 2000.[11] Although longevity of captive birds is known, the lifespan of palm cockatoos that live in the wild is still unknown .

Distribution and habitat

The palm cockatoo is found in rainforests and woodlands of New Guinea and Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia. It can still be found near Sorong, West Papua, Indonesia, where it is sometimes seen in trees along the roads.[12]

Behaviour

It has a unique territorial display where the bird (typically the male) drums with a large (i.e. up to 2.5 cm diameter, 15 cm long) stick or seed pod against a dead bough or tree, creating a loud noise that can be heard up to 100 m away.[13] After drumming, the male occasionally strips the drum tool into small pieces to line the nest.[14] Although this drumming behaviour was discovered over two decades ago (in 1984 by G.A. Wood), the reason why palm cockatoos drum is still a mystery. One reason could be that females can assess the durability of the nesting hollow by the resonance of the drumming. Another possibility could be that males drum to mark their territory against other males. The palm cockatoo is an unusual bird, being an ancient species and one of the few bird species known to use tools.[12]

Vocalisation

 src=
At Jurong Bird Park, Singapore

The vocalizations of palm cockatoos are similar to those of most wild parrots, but they have also been shown to produce a variety of additional syllables in display and exchange with neighbouring individuals. These additional syllables are mainly produced by males and are often combined to form long, complex sequences. In a population in the Iron Range, 30 different syllables were distinguished.[15] The palm cockatoos from the east have different call types than the ones from other areas, due to their long term isolation.[3]

Flocking

This species normally does not appear in large numbers. They are not known to flock feed like many of the cockatoo species. Usually only one to six individuals are observed feeding together at one time. As with other large birds, both parents care for young, so seeing a breeding pair is not unusual. If these birds do congregate, it will usually happen in open woodland just after sunrise or along the rainforest edge before returning to individual roosts for the night.[16]

Breeding

Palm cockatoos only lay one egg every second year and have one of the lowest breeding success rates reported for any species of parrot.[10] Offsetting this is their very long lifespan. A male commenced breeding at 29 in Taronga Zoo in Sydney, and a female at the London Zoo was 40 when she laid her first egg in 1966. Breeding takes place inside tree hollows that look like standing pipes. Fires play an important role in the destruction and creation of nest hollows. Fires allow the colonisation of microorganisms and termites, which enter the tree and start hollowing out the inside. Cyclones are important in the final stage of nest hollow development.

Feeding

The palm cockatoo often feeds during the early hours of the day on a diet that consists mostly of wild growing pandanus palm fruit and nuts from the kanari tree. They have also been seen eating fruit from Darwin stringy bark Eucalyptus tetradonta and nonda tree, as well as seeds from the cocky apple tree, beach almond, and black bean tree.[16]

Conservation and status

 src=
Great black cockatoo from New-Guinea, Dutch colonial expedition Natuurkundige Commissie, around 1821–1822.

The palm cockatoo is still relatively common in Cape York, but is threatened there by habitat destruction, particularly due to bauxite mining around Weipa and altered fire regimens elsewhere. Palm cockatoos are hunted in New Guinea. The palm cockatoo is currently evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES. In Australia, palm cockatoos were relisted from Near Threatened to Vulnerable on 31 October 2015 (EPBC Act List of Threatened Fauna).

Aviculture

This species is in high demand for the pet trade due to its unusual appearance. In early captive situations, pet owners would either feed dog kibble or generic bird seed mixture, while zoos would give them "monkey biscuits". As their nutritional needs became more apparent over the years, owners have shifted to specially formulated "manufactured diet" pellets along with a wide variety of treats like peanuts, pecans, Brazil nuts, pine nuts, sunflower seeds, oranges, apples, grapes, pomegranate, bananas, sweet potatoes, carrots, beets, broccoli, and kale. Many zoos still give them monkey biscuits to broaden their diet.[17]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Probosciger aterrimus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22684723A93043662. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22684723A93043662.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  3. ^ a b Keighley, M. V.; Langmore, N. E.; Zdenek, C. N.; Heinsohn, R. (2 January 2017). "Geographic variation in the vocalizations of Australian palm cockatoos ( Probosciger aterrimus) *". Bioacoustics. 26 (1): 91–108. doi:10.1080/09524622.2016.1201778. ISSN 0952-4622.
  4. ^ Nicole E. White; Matthew J. Phillips; M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez; Eske Willerslev; Peter R. Mawson; Peter B.S. Spencer; Michael Bunce (2011). "The evolutionary history of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 615–622. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.011. PMID 21419232.
  5. ^ Brown DM, Toft CA (1999). "Molecular systematics and biogeography of the cockatoos (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Auk. 116 (1): 141–57. doi:10.2307/4089461. ISSN 0004-8038. JSTOR 4089461.
  6. ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Parrots & cockatoos". World Bird List Version 7.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  7. ^ Shodde & Mason (1997). Aves(Columbidae to Coraciidae) in Zoological Catalogue of Australia 37.2. p. 74.
  8. ^ a b Forshaw, Joseph M. (2006). Parrots of the World; an Identification Guide. Illustrated by Frank Knight. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09251-5.
  9. ^ (Wood 1984)
  10. ^ a b Murphy S, Legge S, Heinsohn R (2003). "The breeding biology of palm cockatoos (Probosciger aterrimus): a case of a slow life history". Journal of Zoology. 261 (4): 327–39. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.475.7031. doi:10.1017/S0952836903004175.
  11. ^ Brouwer K, Jones M, King C, Schifter H (2000). "Longevity records for Psittaciformes in captivity". International Zoo Yearbook. 37: 299–316. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.2000.tb00735.x.
  12. ^ a b Indonesian Parrot Project Archived 29 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Australian Geographic Archived 2 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Heinsohn, Robert; Zdenek, Christina N.; Cunningham, Ross B.; Endler, John A.; Langmore, Naomi E. (1 June 2017). "Tool-assisted rhythmic drumming in palm cockatoos shares key elements of human instrumental music". Science Advances. 3 (6). doi:10.1126/sciadv.1602399. ISSN 2375-2548. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  15. ^ Zdenek, C.N.; Heinsohn, R.; Langmore, N.E. (2015). "Vocal complexity in the palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus)". Bioacoustics. 24 (3): 253–257. doi:10.1080/09524622.2015.1070281.
  16. ^ a b Parrot Tag: Palm Cockatoo Archived 5 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Nutritional Requirements of Adult Palm Cockatoos
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Palm cockatoo: Brief Summary

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The palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus), also known as the goliath cockatoo or great black cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black parrot of the cockatoo family native to New Guinea, Aru Islands, and Cape York Peninsula. It has a very large black beak and prominent red cheek patches.

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Cacatoès noir

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Probosciger aterrimus

Le Cacatoès noir (Probosciger aterrimus), aussi appelé Microglosse noir, est une espèce d'oiseaux de la famille des Psittacidae, l'unique représentante du genre Probosciger. Cette classification a été confirmée par des études génétiques (Brown & Toft [1999] et Astuti [2006]).

Description

 src=
Cacatoès noir en vol.

Adulte, c'est l'un des plus grands perroquets. Il s'agit d'un oiseau de 50 à 70 cm de long pesant entre 500 g et 1 kg. Le Cacatoès noir se caractérise par sa couleur noire (y compris le bec et les pattes), sa grande huppe et un des plus grands becs (9 cm de long) chez les perroquets ; et seul l'Ara hyacinthe a un bec plus gros que le sien. Son bec a la particularité d'avoir une partie inférieure qui peut s'encastrer dans la partie supérieure, ce qui permet à l'oiseau de coincer une noix entre sa langue (rouge à extrémité noire) et sa mandibule supérieure et de l'ouvrir avec sa mandibule inférieure. Il a une tache rouge sur chaque joue correspondant à une zone dénudée de plumes. Celle-ci change de couleur lorsqu'il est inquiet, malade ou nerveux.

Le dimorphisme sexuel est peu marqué : la mandibule supérieure du bec est plus petite chez la femelle.

Les immatures présentent un bec blanc grisâtre et des couvertures blanc jaunâtre.

Alimentation

Il se nourrit de graines, de baies, de plantes, d'insectes et de larves d'insectes. Son bec et sa langue sont conçus pour facilement ouvrir des noix et les extraire de leurs coquilles.

Répartition et habitat

Cet oiseau peuple les îles Aru, la Nouvelle-Guinée et la péninsule du cap York (Australie). Les sous-espèces de Nouvelle-Guinée et des îles avoisinantes (goliath et stenolophus) sont de plus en plus rares dans la nature où elles sont très fortement menacées par un trafic en direction des pays du Moyen-Orient et ceux de l'ancien bloc soviétique.

Il fréquente les forêts tropicales humides, mais aussi les forêts sèches.

Comportement

Il vit généralement seul, en couple ou en petites bandes de 5 à 7 individus.

Reproduction

Le cacatoès se reproduit à partir de quatre ans. La période de reproduction va d'août à janvier ; la femelle pond un œuf unique dans le creux d'un arbre situé très haut qui servira d'une année à l'autre. L'œuf est couvé alternativement par les deux parents pendant 30 jours. L'oisillon restera au nid pendant 100 à 110 jours. L'oisillon ne sera pas capable de commencer à voler pendant encore deux semaines.

Cri et utilisation de percussion

Dans la nature, cet oiseau utilise quatre cris différents très perçants s'entendant de loin. Il a aussi la particularité, observée uniquement pour les populations de la péninsule de York, de taper avec une branche de 20 cm environ qu'il fabrique sur les troncs d'arbres pour produire un bruit sourd qui est entendu à 100 m à la ronde et qui lui sert pour courtiser les femelles. En exceptant l'homme, il s'agit du seul animal connu à utiliser un instrument de percussion de sa fabrication pour jouer un morceau rythmique[1],[2],[3].

Longévité

Cet oiseau peut vivre jusqu'à 50 ans en moyenne.

Animal de compagnie

À cause de son aspect, c'est un animal de compagnie très apprécié, surtout aux États-Unis, mais très rarement en France. Il se reproduit très mal en captivité car il est rarement installé dans des conditions permettant son bien être. Cet oiseau nécessite une volière de plusieurs dizaines de mètres de long sans quoi le mâle peut tuer la femelle. A tort on dit qu'il faut les détenir seuls à cause de cette agressivité des individus vivant dans de trop petits espaces.

Conservation

Il existe un Programme européen pour les espèces menacées (EEP) de l'Association européenne des zoos et aquariums (EAZA) consacré à cette espèce. Celui-ci est coordonné par le ZooParc de Beauval, en France[4].

Sous-espèces

D'après la classification de référence (version 5.2, 2015) du Congrès ornithologique international, cette espèce est constituée des quatre sous-espèces suivantes (ordre phylogénique) :

  • Probosciger aterrimus stenolophus (Oort, 1911) ;
  • Probosciger aterrimus goliath (Kuhl, 1820) ;
  • Probosciger aterrimus aterrimus (Gmelin, 1788) ;
  • Probosciger aterrimus mcgivriossus (Mathews, 1912) ;

Notes et références

  1. « Cacatoès noir, artiste batteur », sur humanite-biodiversite.fr, 10 juillet 2017 (consulté le 30 juin 2019).
  2. Shaena Montanari, « Le cacatoès noir, rock star du royaume animal », sur National Geographic, 5 juillet 2017 (consulté le 30 juin 2019).
  3. (en) Robert Heinsohn, Christina N. Zdenek, Ross B. Cunningham, John A. Endler et Naomi E. Langmore, « Tool-assisted rhythmic drumming in palm cockatoos shares key elements of human instrumental music », Science Advances, vol. 3, no 6,‎ 1er juin 2017 (ISSN , DOI , lire en ligne, consulté le 30 juin 2019).
  4. (en) « EAZA Activities> Collection Planning> EEPs and ESBs », sur eaza.portal.isis.org (consulté le 15 mai 2016)

Voir aussi

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Cacatoès noir: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Probosciger aterrimus

Le Cacatoès noir (Probosciger aterrimus), aussi appelé Microglosse noir, est une espèce d'oiseaux de la famille des Psittacidae, l'unique représentante du genre Probosciger. Cette classification a été confirmée par des études génétiques (Brown & Toft [1999] et Astuti [2006]).

license
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copyright
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partner site
wikipedia FR