dcsimg

Gleicheniales

provided by wikipedia EN
This article defines the Gleicheniales in a loose sense. For the restricted definition, see Gleicheniaceae.

Gleicheniales is an order of ferns in the subclass Polypodiidae (the leptosporangiate ferns). The Gleicheniales have records potentially as early as the Carboniferous, but the oldest unambiguous records date to the Permian.

Description

These ferns are characterized by root steles having 3–5 protoxylem poles and antheridia with 6–12 narrow, twisted or curved cells in their walls.[1] Otherwise, their habitus is highly diverse, including plants with the typical fern fronds, others whose leaves resemble those of palm trees, and yet others again which have undivided leaves. They are tropical ferns, most diverse in Asia and the Pacific region.

Classification

In the molecular phylogenetic classification of Smith et al. in 2006, the Gleicheniales were placed in class Polypodiopsida (the leptosporangiate ferns). Three families, Dipteridaceae, Gleicheniaceae, and Matoniaceae were recognized.[1] The linear sequence of Christenhusz et al. (2011), intended for compatibility with the classification of Chase and Reveal (2009)[2] which placed all land plants in Equisetopsida,[3] reclassified Smith's Polypodiopsida as subclass Polypodiidae and placed the Gleicheniales there. The circumscription of the order and its families was not changed,[2] and that circumscription and placement in Polypodiidae has subsequently been followed in the classifications of Christenhusz and Chase (2014)[4] and PPG I (2016).[5]

The form taxon Microphyllopteris is used for some Mesozoic Gleicheniales that cannot be reliably assigned to the present-day orders. The Triassic Antarctipteris and Gleichenipteris are sometimes ascribed to the Gleicheniaceae, but are probably better considered Gleicheniales incertae sedis.[1] The oldest possible members of the family are members of the genus Oligocarpia (reproductive organs) from the Carboniferous. However, these have alternatively been considered members of Sermayaceae. The oldest unambiguous records, belonging to the family Gleicheniaceae, are known from the Wuda Tuff flora of China, dating to the Asselian, approximately 298.34 million years ago.[6]

In historical treatments, the order has sometimes been treated as a subclass Gleicheniatae of the Pteridopsida, with the taxa treated as families here upranked to orders, so that a distinct subclass can be established for the leptosporangiate ferns. In other treatments, they were expanded to include the filmy ferns (order Hymenophyllales), as well as the similar-looking genus Hymenophyllopsis (as order Hymenophyllopsidales). The resultant group was treated as class Gleichenopsida alongside the Pteridopsida, which would then be limited to the leptosporangiate ferns. However, this class is not monophyletic but rather a basal grade, retaining ancient traits among the living ferns.[1] Irrespective of their modern taxonomic treatment, the Gleicheniales were formerly included in the order Polypodiales. But the ferns in the loose sense are much too diverse a group to be shoehorned into one taxon at such a low rank.[1]

The following diagram shows the phylogeny of Gleicheniales.[7][8]

Gleicheniales

Gleicheniaceae

     

Selenocarpus

     

Matoniaceae

   

Dipteridaceae

       

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e Smith, Alan R.; Pryer, Kathleen M.; Schuettpelz, Eric; Korall, Petra; Schneider, Harald; Wolf, Paul G. (August 2006). "A classification for extant ferns" (PDF). Taxon. 55 (3): 705–731. doi:10.2307/25065646. JSTOR 25065646.
  2. ^ a b Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Schneider, Harald (18 February 2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 19: 7–54. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.19.1.2.
  3. ^ Chase, Mark W.; Reveal, James L. (October 2009). "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 122–127. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x.
  4. ^ Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Chase, Mark W. (13 February 2014). "Trends and concepts in fern classification". Annals of Botany. 113 (4): 571–594. doi:10.1093/aob/mct299. PMC 3936591. PMID 24532607.
  5. ^ The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (November 2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229. S2CID 39980610.
  6. ^ He, Xuezhi; Zhou, Weiming; Li, Dandan; Wang, Shijun; Hilton, Jason; Wang, Jun (November 2021). "A 298-million-year-old gleicheniaceous fern from China". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 294: 104355. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2020.104355.
  7. ^ Samuli Lehtonen (2011). "Towards Resolving the Complete Fern Tree of Life" (PDF). PLOS ONE. 6 (10): e24851. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024851. PMC 3192703. PMID 22022365.
  8. ^ Choo, Thereis Y. S.; Escapa, Ignacio H. (2018). "Assessing the evolutionary history of the fern family Dipteridaceae (Gleicheniales) by incorporating both extant and extinct members in a combined phylogenetic study". American Journal of Botany. 105 (8): 1–14. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1121. PMID 30091784.

References

  • Smith, A. R.; Pryer, Kathleen M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Korall, P.; Schneider, H. & Wolf, P.G. (2006): A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55(3): 705-731. PDF fulltext
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Gleicheniales: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
This article defines the Gleicheniales in a loose sense. For the restricted definition, see Gleicheniaceae.

Gleicheniales is an order of ferns in the subclass Polypodiidae (the leptosporangiate ferns). The Gleicheniales have records potentially as early as the Carboniferous, but the oldest unambiguous records date to the Permian.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Gleicheniales

provided by wikipedia FR

L'ordre des Gleicheniales est un ordre de fougères qui comprend les 3 familles suivantes :

Le Gleicheniales sont des plantes vasculaires dont le cycle de vie haplodiplonte avec alternance de générations est bien évident, avec le sporophyte et le gamétophyte multicellulaires et indépendants et des spores comme forme de dispersion et de résistance. Le gamétophyte est un talle (corps sans organisation) et le sporophyte structuré (rhizome, racine, tige avec système vasculaire). C'est en raison de ces caractéristiques qu'elles sont traditionnellement regroupées avec les "ptéridophytes".

Les sporophytes ont de grandes feuilles de formes variées selon les espèces: en formes de «frondes», de feuilles de palmiers ou simples.

La stèle de la racine a 3-5 faisceaux de protoxylème (Schneider, 1996a).

Les anthéridies contiennent de 6 à 12 cellules étroites, tordues ou courbes.

Phylogénie au sein des Ptéridophytes

Phylogénie des ordres actuels de Ptéridophytes d'après le Pteridophytes Phylogeny Group (2016)[1] :

Tracheophyta Lycopodiopsida

Lycopodiales (Lycopodes)




Isoëtales (Isoëtes)



Selaginellales (Sélaginelles)




Euphyllophytina Polypodiopsida
Equisetidae

Equisetales (Prêles)





Ophioglossidae

Ophioglossales



Psilotales (Psilotes)






Marattiidae

Marattiales


Polypodiidae

Osmundales




Hymenophyllales




Gleicheniales




Schizaeales




Salviniales




Cyatheales



Polypodiales












(Spermatophytina)

(Spermatophyta, les plantes à graines)




Notes et références

  1. (en) PPG I (2016), A community‐derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Jnl of Sytematics Evolution, 54: 563-603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229 (lire en ligne)

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

Gleicheniales: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

L'ordre des Gleicheniales est un ordre de fougères qui comprend les 3 familles suivantes :

Dipteridaceae Gleicheniaceae Matoniaceae

Le Gleicheniales sont des plantes vasculaires dont le cycle de vie haplodiplonte avec alternance de générations est bien évident, avec le sporophyte et le gamétophyte multicellulaires et indépendants et des spores comme forme de dispersion et de résistance. Le gamétophyte est un talle (corps sans organisation) et le sporophyte structuré (rhizome, racine, tige avec système vasculaire). C'est en raison de ces caractéristiques qu'elles sont traditionnellement regroupées avec les "ptéridophytes".

Les sporophytes ont de grandes feuilles de formes variées selon les espèces: en formes de «frondes», de feuilles de palmiers ou simples.

La stèle de la racine a 3-5 faisceaux de protoxylème (Schneider, 1996a).

Les anthéridies contiennent de 6 à 12 cellules étroites, tordues ou courbes.

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

풀고사리목

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

풀고사리목(Gleicheniales)은 고사리강에 속하는 양치류 목의 하나이다. 좀더 엄밀한 관다발식물의 계통발생 분류를 통해 풀고사리목을 진엽식물아문의 중원형식물하문(Monilophytes, 넓은 의미의 양치류)에 속하는 것으로 분류하기도 한다.

좀더 전통적인 분류 방식에서는 중원형식물하문 대신에, 양치식물문이라는 독립된 식물 문으로 분류한다.[1] 화석 기록을 통해 본 풀고사리목은 적어도 백악기까지 거슬러 올라갈 정도로 일찍 등장한 것으로 보인다.[2]

하위 분류

계통발생학적 관계

아래는 관다발식물에 속하는 식물 강(綱)들과 박벽포자낭군 양치류 사이의 관계를 보여주는 분기도이다.

관다발식물

석송문

진엽식물

종자식물

양치식물 솔잎란강

솔잎란목



고사리삼목



속새강

속새목



용비늘고사리강

용비늘고사리목



양치식물강

고비목




처녀이끼목




풀고사리목




실고사리목




생이가래목




나무고사리목



고사리목








     
진정포자낭군
양치식물
박벽포자낭군
양치식물

각주

  1. Smith et al. (2006)
  2. C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Fern. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment, topic ed. S Basu. ed in chief C. Cleveland
  • Smith, A. R.; Pryer, Kathleen M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Korall, P.; Schneider, H. & Wolf, P.G. (2006): A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55(3): 705-731. PDF fulltext
 title=
license
ko
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/