dcsimg

Phaeotremella

provided by wikipedia EN

Phaeotremella is a genus of fungi in the family Phaeotremellaceae. All Phaeotremella species are parasites of other fungi and produce anamorphic yeast states. Basidiocarps (fruit bodies), when produced, are gelatinous and are colloquially classed among the "jelly fungi". Fifteen or so species of Phaeotremella are currently recognized worldwide.

Taxonomy

History

The genus Phaeotremella was originally created by British mycologist Carleton Rea to accommodate Phaeotremella pseudofoliacea, a fungus that resembled a Tremella species but had brown rather than white basidiospores. Later authors considered this to be a mistaken observation and placed Phaeotremella in synonymy with Tremella and its type species in synonymy with Tremella foliacea.[1][2]

Molecular research, based on cladistic analysis of DNA sequences, has however shown that Tremella is paraphyletic (and hence artificial).[3][4][5][6] A different generic name was therefore required for a group of species not closely related to Tremella mesenterica (the type species of Tremella) and Phaeotremella was selected as the earliest such name available.[7] As a result, the current definition of Phaeotremella is not the same as Rea's original concept. The type species, P. pseudofoliacea, has been placed in synonymy with Phaeotremella frondosa.[8]

Description

Fruit bodies (when present) are gelatinous. In some species they are small (under 5 mm across) and pustular to pulvinate (cushion-shaped). In others they are much larger (up to 150 mm across) and may be variously lobed or foliose (with leaf-like or seaweed-like fronds). Several Phaeotremella species are, however, only known from their yeast states.[9]

Microscopic characters

Phaeotremella species produce hyphae that are typically (but not always) clamped and have haustorial cells from which hyphal filaments seek out and penetrate the hyphae of the host.[10] The basidia are "tremelloid" (globose to ellipsoid and vertically or diagonally septate), giving rise to long, sinuous sterigmata or epibasidia on which the basidiospores are produced. These spores are smooth, globose to ellipsoid, and germinate by hyphal tube or by yeast cells. Conidiophores are often present, producing conidiospores that are similar to yeast cells.[3]

Habitat and distribution

Species are parasitic on members of the corticioid fungi, specifically species of Aleurodiscus and Stereum. Those on Aleurodiscus, including Phaeotremella mycophaga, parasitize the fruit bodies of their hosts;[10] those on Stereum, such as Phaeotremella foliacea, P. frondosa, and P. fimbriata, parasitize the host mycelium within the wood.[8]

As a group, Phaeotremella species occur worldwide, though individual species may have a more restricted distribution.[8]

Species and hosts

Only species producing basidiocarps (fruit bodies) are listed. Not all hosts are known.

References

  1. ^ Donk MA. (1958). "The generic names proposed for hymenomycetes – VIII". Taxon. 7 (8): 236–250. doi:10.2307/1217280. JSTOR 1217280.
  2. ^ Roberts P. (1999). "British Tremella species II: T. encephala, T. steidleri & T. foliacea". Mycologist. 13 (3): 127–131. doi:10.1016/S0269-915X(99)80044-5.
  3. ^ a b c Chen C-J. (1998). Morphological and molecular studies in the genus Tremella. Berlin: J. Cramer. p. 225. ISBN 978-3-443-59076-5.
  4. ^ Fell JW, Boekhout T, Fonseca A, Scorzetti G, Statzell-Tallman A (2000). "Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large-subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis" (PDF). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 50 (3): 1351–1371. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-3-1351. PMID 10843082. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  5. ^ Sampaio JP, Weiss M, Gadanho M, Bauer R (2002). "New taxa in the Tremellales: Bulleribasidium oberjochense gen. et sp. nov., Papiliotrema bandonii gen. et sp. nov. and Fibulobasidium murrhardtense sp. nov". Mycologia. 94 (5): 873–887. doi:10.2307/3761703. JSTOR 3761703. PMID 21156562.
  6. ^ Findley K, Rodriguez-Carres M, Metin B, Kroiss J, Fonseca A, Vilgalys R, Heitman J (2009). "Phylogeny and phenotypic characterization of pathogenic Cryptococcus species and closely related saprobic taxa in the Tremellales" (PDF). Eukaryotic Cell. 8 (3): 353–361. doi:10.1128/EC.00373-08. PMC 2653247. PMID 19151324.
  7. ^ Liu XZ, Wang QM, Göker M, Groenewald M, Kachalkin AV, Lumbsch HT, Millanes AM, Wedin M, Yurkov AM, Boekhout T, Bai FY (2015). "Towards an integrated phylogenetic classification of the Tremellomycetes". Studies in Mycology. 81: 85–147. doi:10.1016/j.simyco.2015.12.001. PMC 4777781. PMID 26955199.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Spirin V, Malysheva V, Yurkov A, Miettinen O, Larsson KH (2018). "Studies in the Phaeotremella foliacea group (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota)". Mycological Progress. 17 (4): 451–466. doi:10.1007/s11557-017-1371-4. hdl:10138/326186. S2CID 44901453.
  9. ^ Sun Y, Wang G, Li A, Wangmu, Chui X, Jiang J, Wang Q (2020). "Phaeotremella camelliae sp. nov. (Phaeotremellaceae, Tremellales), A Novel Yeasts Isolated from Tea-Oil Fruits in Jiangxi Province, China". Microbiology. 77 (10): 3168–3173. doi:10.1007/s00284-020-02061-9. PMID 32514781. S2CID 219543883.
  10. ^ a b Zugmaier W, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1994). "Mycoparasitism of some Tremella species". Mycologia. 86 (1): 49–56. doi:10.2307/3760718. JSTOR 3760718.
  11. ^ a b c Bandoni RJ, Ginns J (1993). "On some species of Tremella associated with Corticiaceae". Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan. 34: 21–36. JSTOR 3760718.
  12. ^ Malysheva VF, Malysheva EF, Bulakh EM (2015). "The genus Tremella (Tremellales, Basidiomycota) in Russia with description of two new species and proposal of one nomenclatural combination". Phytotaxa. 238: 40–70. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.238.1.2.
  13. ^ Roberts P. (2001). "British Tremella species III: Tremella callunicola sp. nov., T. invasa, T. sarniensis sp. nov., T. simplex & T. versicolor". Mycologist. 15 (4): 146–150. doi:10.1016/S0269-915X(01)80002-1.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Phaeotremella: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Phaeotremella is a genus of fungi in the family Phaeotremellaceae. All Phaeotremella species are parasites of other fungi and produce anamorphic yeast states. Basidiocarps (fruit bodies), when produced, are gelatinous and are colloquially classed among the "jelly fungi". Fifteen or so species of Phaeotremella are currently recognized worldwide.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN