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Hladnikia

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Hladnikia is a monotypic genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Apiaceae.[3] Its sole species, Hladnikia pastinacifolia, is a Slovenian paleoendemite,[4][5] restricted to the area of only 4 km2, located in Trnovo Forest Plateau, karst plateau of Western Slovenia.[6] German botanist Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach named the genus after Carniolan botanist and founder of Ljubljana Botanical Garden Franz Hladnik.[4][7]

Description

Hladnikia pastinacifolia is a monocarpic herbaceous perennial plant, which takes a few vegetation periods to develop into a flowering plant.[6] Individuals, which have erect flowering stem, can reach from 15 to 30 centimetres of height.[8] At first plant's leathery and glossy leaves are simple shaped and arranged into rosettes. Later on, as their area increases, leaves also change shape into lobate.[6][8] Hladnikia pastinacifolia resembles well-known celery (Apium graveolens), but has thicker foliage and shorter leaf stems.[4] The species' root is long and lignified. The plant's flower has white, heart-shaped and 1 mm long petals.[8]

Not much is known about the plant's exact breeding system. This plant species is entomophilous and has multiple different pollinators. It is thought that outcrossing happens occasionally.[6] The species flowering period is between Mai and July.[4] After successful pollination seeds that don't have any special dispersal adaptation develop between the end of August and into September. A fruit is a schizocarp, which after maturing splits into two 4 mm sized mericarps,[6] 2 mm wide.[8]

Hladnikia pastinacifolia chromosome number is 2n = 22.[8]

Distribution and conservation

The plant is a Slovenian paleoendemic species restricted to small area (4 km2) in Trnovski gozd. There these plants grow only on southern slopes of the plateau and two isolated areas located 9 km away on the northern slopes.[6] As the plant species is not a habitat specialist its growing areas are various; Hladnikia pastinacifolia was found on stony grasslands, rock crevices and screes. Laboratory molecular analyses have shown that Hladnikia pastinacifolia is a Pleistocene survivor in situ.[8]

Even though its population trend is labeled as stable by IUCN Red list, it has data deficient (DD) conservation status.[9][1] Among mentioned threats are human intrusions and disturbance (such as recreational activities) as well as natural system modifications.[1] The Trnovo Forest Plateau is listed as Natura 2000 site.[9][10] Because of its small area of distribution and different threats the species is studied for possible cryopreservation.[5][11][12]

References

  1. ^ a b c Bilz, M. (2011). "Hladnikia pastinacifolia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T162082A5530927.
  2. ^ a b c "Hladnikia pastinacifolia Rchb". www.gbif.org. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  3. ^ "Hladnikia Rchb. | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d "Hladnikia pastinacifolia (rebrinčevolistna hladnikija)". www.botanicni-vrt.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2021-08-15.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ a b Ciringer, Terezija (2016). Krioprezervacija rebrinčevolistne hladnikovke (Hladnikia pastinacifolia Rchb.) z optimizacijo inkapsulacijske dehidracije in vitrifikacije [Cryopreservation of Hladnikia pastinacifolia Rchb. with optimization of encapsulation dehydration and vitrification] (Thesis) (in Slovenian). OCLC 958133505. S2CID 125730341.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Šajna, Nina; Kavar, Tatjana; Šuštar-Vozliè, Jelka; Kaligariè, Mitja (1 January 2012). "Population Genetics of the Narrow Endemic Hladnikia Pastinacifolia RCHB. (Apiaceae) Indicates Survival in Situ During the Pleistocene". Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica. 54 (1). doi:10.2478/v10182-012-0009-8.
  7. ^ "Info in English | Botanično društvo Slovenije" (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Sajna, Nina; Šuštar-Vozlič, Jelka; Kaligarič, Mitja (28 October 2014). "New Insights into the Anatomy of an Endemic Hladnikia Pastinacifolia Rchb". Acta Botanica Croatica. 73 (2): 375–384. doi:10.2478/botcro-2014-0005. S2CID 36596271.
  9. ^ a b "Hladnikia pastinacifolia - Rchb". eunis.eea.europa.eu. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  10. ^ "ArcGIS Web Application". natura2000.eea.europa.eu. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  11. ^ Mujakić, Jakup (2016). Vpliv velikosti vcepka in gojišča na regeneracijo brstov rebrinčevolistne hladnikovke (Hladnikia pastinacifolia Rchb.) v tkivni kulturi [Influence of graft size and culture medium on regeneration of Hladnikia pastinacifolia Rchb. in tissue culture] (Thesis) (in Slovenian). OCLC 958134229.
  12. ^ Ciringer, Terezija (2010). Mikropropagacija in krioprezervacija z inkapsulacijsko dehidracijo rebrinčevolistne hladnikovke (Hladnikia pastinacifolia Rchb.) : magistrsko delo [Micropropagation and cryopreservation with encapsulation dehydration of Hladnikia pastinacifolia Rchb] (Thesis) (in Slovenian). OCLC 781469120.
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Hladnikia: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Hladnikia is a monotypic genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Apiaceae. Its sole species, Hladnikia pastinacifolia, is a Slovenian paleoendemite, restricted to the area of only 4 km2, located in Trnovo Forest Plateau, karst plateau of Western Slovenia. German botanist Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach named the genus after Carniolan botanist and founder of Ljubljana Botanical Garden Franz Hladnik.

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