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Biology

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Flowerpot corals, despite their delicate names, are generally aggressive animals (3). They are capable of developing elongated 'sweeper' polyps, like the sweeper tentacles of other corals, which can inflict severe tissue damage on a coral within their reach. It is therefore unusual to see other coral species growing close to the flowerpot coral (3), and it is believed that this adaptation benefits the flowerpot coral in the intense competition for space on the reef (5). Like other reef-building corals, flowerpot coral polyps have microscopic algae (zooxanthellae) living within their tissues. Through photosynthesis, these symbiotic algae produce energy-rich molecules that the coral polyps can use as nutrition. In addition, the large polyps can use their tentacles to capture plankton to feed on, and thus are not as reliant on sunlight, required for photosynthesis, as some other coral species (4). Flowerpot corals have separate male and female colonies (not all corals do) which release sperm and eggs into the water for external fertilisation. The fertilised egg develops into a free-swimming larva that will eventually settle on the substrate and develop into new colonies (3).
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Conservation

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Flowerpot corals are listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which means that trade in this species should be carefully regulated (1). Indonesia and Fiji have export quotas for flowerpot corals (1). In Indonesia it is one of five genera with the highest quotas, despite there being no scientific reason to suppose they are capable of supporting higher harvest levels than other genera (7). Flowerpot corals will form part of the marine community in many marine protected areas (MPAs), which offer coral reefs a degree of protection, and there are many calls from non-governmental organisations for larger MPAs to ensure the persistence of these unique and fascinating ecosystems (6).
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Description

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The appearance of this pretty coral belies its aggressive behaviour. Many individual coral polyps, (anemone-like animals that secrete a skeleton), form colonies which join together at the base of their skeletons. These colonies grow to form branches, columns, solid colonies that are dome-shaped, or colonies that adhere close to the substrate (2). Colonies may be meters across and sometimes whole sections of a reef face are covered exclusively by one branching Goniopora species (3). One Goniopora species, daisy coral, is named for its extremely large, flower-like polyps, and can grow to cover areas of six to ten meters (4). Each polyp has 24 long and fleshy tentacles that are normally extended day and night (2), although these quickly retract when touched revealing the massive skeletons beneath (4). Each Goniopora species differs in the shape and colour of their polyps, which allows their identification underwater (2).
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Habitat

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Flowerpot corals are most commonly found in turbid water protected from strong wave action (3)
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Range

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Occurs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans; from the coast of Mozambique, to the Red Sea, and east to northern Australia, southern Japan and Hawaii (2).
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Status

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Listed on Appendix II of CITES (1).
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Threats

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Flowerpot corals face the many threats that are impacting coral reefs globally. It is estimated that 20 percent of the world's coral reefs have already been effectively destroyed and show no immediate prospects of recovery, and 24 percent of the world's reefs are under imminent risk of collapse due to human pressures. These human impacts include poor land management practices that are releasing more sediment, nutrients and pollutants into the oceans and stressing the fragile reef ecosystem. Over fishing has 'knock-on' effects that results in the increase of macro-algae that can out-compete and smother corals, and fishing using destructive methods physically devastates the reef. A further potential threat is the increase of coral bleaching events, as a result of global climate change (6). More specifically, Goniopora is potentially threatened by the live coral trade. Goniopora is one of the genera that dominates the live coral trade for use in aquariums. Goniopora and Euphyllia species are traded more than any other genus, partly because they normally do not survive more than a year, and therefore have to be replaced fairly frequently. A small amount of flowerpot corals are also traded as ornamental carvings, and for biomedical purposes; due to the similarity in structure of coral skeletons to human bones, they can be used in bone grafts (7).
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Goniopora ( Spanish; Castilian )

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Informacion sobre gonioporay especies

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Goniopora ( German )

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Goniopora ist eine Gattung der Steinkorallen in der Familie Poritidae. Nach World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) sind 37 Arten beschrieben.

Merkmale

Die fleischigen[1], auffallend langen[2] Polypen von Goniopora haben 24 Tentakel. Die Koralliten haben dicke, jedoch poröse Wände. Die Kelche sind mit dichten Septen und einer Collumella (Kalksäule, an die alle Septen stoßen) gefüllt.[1] Die Septen sind in drei Zyklen angeordnet.[3] Die Wuchsform ist gewöhnlich massiv oder säulenartig, sie kann aber auch krustenartig sein.[1]

Goniopora sind überwiegend cremefarben, hellbraun oder grau mit teilweise rosafarbenen, violetten, gelben, grünen oder weißen Tentakeln.[2] Die Polypen der verschiedenen Arten unterschieden sich in Form und Farbe, so dass sie unter Wasser bestimmt werden können.[1]

Verbreitung

Goniopora sind im gesamten Indopazifik, sowohl in tropischen als auch in gemäßigten Regionen verbreitet.[3]

Lebensweise

Goniopora leben in einer symbiotischen Beziehung mit Zooxanthellen.[2] Die Polypen sind normalerweise am Tag und bei Nacht ausgestreckt.[1] Goniopora Arten nutzen ihre langen Polypen um das von ihnen besiedelte Substrat gegen benachbarte, konkurrierende Arte abzugrenzen.[2]

Forschungsgeschichte

Die Gattung wurde 1930 von de Blainville erstellt, als Typusart gab er Goniopora pedunculata an. Goniopora pedunculata wurde von den Schiffsärzten und Zoologen Quoy und Gaimard während ihrer Reise auf dem Expeditionsschiff Astrolabe von 1826 bis 1829 gesammelt und 1833 von ihnen gültig erstbeschrieben. De Blainville vermerkte dazu: „Diese Gattung wurde von Quoy und Gaimard gegründet. Auf den ersten Blick ähnelte die Art einer Astrea, so dass diese Naturforscher fast dazu neigten sie als Astrea pedunculata zu bezeichnen. Sie erkannten jedoch, dass es sich um eine eigene Gattung handelt die Astrea zwar ähnlich ist, sich allerdings dennoch von ihr unterscheidet, vor allem durch die Form des Tieres.[4] Die erwähne, ähnliche Art Astrea calicularis Lamarck, 1816 ist heute als Goniopora calicularis (Lamarck, 1816) anerkannt.[5]

Einzelnachweise

  1. a b c d e J. E. N. Veron (1986): Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus & Robertson Publishers, Auszug bei World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)
  2. a b c d Goniopora im Marine Species Identification Portal
  3. a b Yuko F. Kitano, Masami Obuchi, Daisuke Uyeno et al.: Phylogenetic and taxonomic status of the coral Goniopora stokesi and related species (Scleractinia: Poritidae) in Japan based on molecular and morphological data. In: Zoological Studies, Band 52, Dezember 2013, 25, doi:10.1186/1810-522X-52-25
  4. De Blainville: Mollusques, Vers et Zoophytes. In: Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, dans lequel on traitre méthodiquement des differéns êtres de la nature, considérés soit en eux-mêmes, d'après l'état actuel de nos connoissances, soit relativement a l'utlité qu'en peuvent retirer la médicine, l'agriculture, le commerce et les arts. S. 359–360. (Online)
  5. Goniopora calicularis bei World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)
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Goniopora: Brief Summary ( German )

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Goniopora ist eine Gattung der Steinkorallen in der Familie Poritidae. Nach World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) sind 37 Arten beschrieben.

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Goniopora

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 src=
A variety of Goniopora sp.

Goniopora, often called flowerpot coral, is a genus of colonial stony coral found in lagoons and turbid water conditions. Goniopora have numerous daisy-like polyps that extend outward from the base, each tipped with 24 stinging tentacles which surrounds a mouth.

Distribution

Species of Goniopora can be found in the Persian Sea areas, the Indian Ocean, and various tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Various species live as far north as Hong Kong (where they are the dominant colonial non-reef-building coral) and southern Japan. Goniopera were present in the Caribbean during the Miocene Epoch, although they have since gone locally extinct there.

Care

Goniopora is a sensitive coral that when probed can sensitise and contract . Goniopora are a very difficult coral to keep alive and are not recommended for a novice reef aquarium hobbyist. The short, greenish-colored species are less sturdy and durable than the pink or purple species.[2] Many precautions must be taken to raise Goniopora. First, they require moderate to high lighting, depending on species. They must also have some water movement so their polyps can move freely. However, it should not be directed right at the polyps or the movement might be too vigorous. The water temperature must remain between 77 and 84 °F (25 and 29 °C). There must be adequate amounts of calcium and iron in the tank to help skeletal development. Placement in the tank is also crucial. They must be well positioned on a sturdy rock to avoid damaging falls. When placing Goniopora they must have enough room to grow and move their tentacles. Goniopora should be monitored for shriveling after being moved to a new tank to make sure they are getting enough sunlight.

Feeding

Goniopora are avid feeders susceptible to death from nutritional deficiencies. There are many different ways to feed Goniopora. For example, they can be directly fed with a syringe (avoiding a hard, straight flow into the polyps or that triggers them to close up) or food can be sprinkled on the top of the tank and let to reach the Goniopora on its own. However, direct feeding seems to work best. Alternately, plankton can be placed in the tank with all filtration systems off so the food does not get swept away. The filters should be turned back on after one to two hours to keep the tank clean and livable for all of the creatures. Goniopora need foods high in manganese and iron.[3]

Fragging

Goniopora grow daughter cells in a type of asexual reproduction called fragging. The mother corals have wounds from the daughter corals that usually heal up in about two weeks. The daughter corals grow about 1 millimeter a month. Some scientists suggest that the daughter Goniopora live inside cells of the mother coral before breaking out and growing on their own

Issues

There are many issues that go along with keeping Goniopora. The first one is that it is very hard to locate and buy, especially the red species. Goniopora may grow in murky or clear water depending on the species. Because different species have such different requirements, it adds to the challenge of keeping them alive.

Species

This genus contains the following species:[4]

References

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Goniopora: Brief Summary

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 src= A variety of Goniopora sp.

Goniopora, often called flowerpot coral, is a genus of colonial stony coral found in lagoons and turbid water conditions. Goniopora have numerous daisy-like polyps that extend outward from the base, each tipped with 24 stinging tentacles which surrounds a mouth.

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Goniopora ( Spanish; Castilian )

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 src=
Goniopora fruticosa
 src=
Goniopora sp.
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Colonias de Goniopora columna, abajo colonia retraída. Koh Phangan, Tailandia
Goniopora.jpg
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Goniopora sp. en Timor
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Goniopora sp. con grupo de Aeoliscus strigatus al fondo.
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Goniopora lobata
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Goniopora sp. en Maldivas

Goniopora es un género de corales duros que pertenece a la familia Poritidae, del orden Scleractinia.

Su nombre común en inglés es "flowerpot coral", coral maceta, debido a la forma de su disco oral y sus tentáculos, que asemejan a flores coronando un largo tallo de cada pólipo. También se denominan corales joya.[1]

Especies

El Registro Mundial de Especies Marinas reconoce las siguientes especies en el género,[2]​ de las que la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza, UICN, ha evaluado el estado de conservación de parte de ellas:[3]

Debido a los frecuentes cambios en la clasificación de las especies de corales, producidos por los avances científicos como los análisis filogenéticos moleculares, las imágenes por microscopio electrónico de barrido, y otros, las siguientes especies están pendientes de conclusiones para su definitiva clasificación:

  • Goniopora reptans. Bernard, 1908 (taxon inquirendum: validez incierta o disputada por expertos)
  • Goniopora crassa. Crossland, 1848 (nomen dubium)
  • Goniopora gracilis. (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849) (nomen dubium)
  • Goniopora parvistella. Ortmann, 1888 (nomen dubium)
  • Goniopora viridis. (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) (nomen dubium)
  • Goniopora mauritiensis. Bernard, 1908 (nomen nudum)

Morfología

Su esqueleto es ligero y poroso, y tiene forma esférica, masiva o columnar, a veces incrustante. Los muros del coralito son gruesos, y los cálices tienen septos compactos y columnela.[4]​ El diámetro de los cálices, de forma circular o poligonal, oscila entre 1 y 10 mm. Los 24 septos se distribuyen en dos o tres ciclos. Pueden desarrollar lóbulos paliformes.[5]

De él salen los largos tallos de los pólipos, que superan los 30 cm, y cuyos colores pueden ser rosa, verde, amarillo, marrón, rojo o crema, frecuentemente con las puntas de los tentáculos iridiscentes, en color verde.

Los tentáculos que rodean el disco oral son 24 en todas las especies. De hecho, la forma de distinguirlos de sus parientes cercanos los Alveopora, es porque el número de tentáculos de éstas siempres es 12.

Los pólipos están casi siempre extendidos durante el día y la noche.

Hábitat y distribución

Su distribución geográfica comprende el Mar Rojo y el Indo-Pacífico, incluyendo la costa este africana, el Golfo de Aden, Mar de China, Indonesia, y norte y este de Australia.

Este género puede encontrarse a diferentes profundidades y en diversas zonas del arrecife, e incluso en lagunas intermareales, pero siempre en zonas ricas en sedimentos. Se ubica en zonas tanto poco iluminadas, como con intensa iluminación, y en corrientes de intensidad baja o moderada.

Alimentación

Los pólipos contienen algas simbióticas llamadas zooxantelas. Las algas realizan la fotosíntesis produciendo oxígeno y azúcares, que son aprovechados por los pólipos, y se alimentan de los catabolitos del coral, especialmente fósforo y nitrógeno.[6]​ Esto les proporciona la mayoría de sus necesidades alimenticias. El resto lo obtienen atrapando plancton con sus tentáculos o absorbiendo materia orgánica disuelta del agua.

Reproducción

Goniopora se reproduce, tanto sexual, como asexualmente. Liberando al tiempo en el agua tanto huevos como esperma, para que se fertilicen. Los huevos fertilizados se convierten en larvas que circulan en la columna de agua, antes de establecerse y convertirse en pólipos, que secretarán carbonato cálcico, dando forma a un esqueleto individual o coralito, y, mediante la multiplicación de los pólipos por gemación, se conforma una nueva colonia.

También se reproducen generando un nódulo calcáreo que crece hasta que su peso hace que se rompa, separándose de la colonia madre y dando lugar a una nueva colonia.

Mantenimiento

Son de las especies de coral más difíciles de mantener. Debe instalarse en la parte baja del acuario. En caso de no instalarlo en la arena, se colocará en el tercio inferior del acuario, teniendo especial cuidado con las rocas para evitar que se dañen sus delicados tentáculos, ya que de ocurrir, corremos el riesgo de que coja alguna infección y se degenere rápidamente.

Se debe dejar espacio a su alrededor, para evitar que dañe a otros corales, porque es agresivo.

La iluminación debe ser de media a intensa, y la corriente, de baja a moderada.

La calidad del agua es fundamental para su supervivencia, deberemos hacer cambios frecuentes de agua, ya que debemos alimentarlos frecuentemente con micro plancton, mantener los fosfatos a 0, nitratos lo más bajos posible, y aditar calcio y magnesio, así como estroncio. Algunos autores reportan la conveniencia de albergar macro algas junto a ellos.[7]

Referencias

  1. https://web.archive.org/web/20120904091551/http://www.aquanovel.com/gonioporas.htm
  2. Hoeksema, B. (2014). Goniopora de Blainville, 1830. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=205476. Consultada el 15 de noviembre de 2014.
  3. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. . Consultada el 15 de noviembre de 2014.
  4. Veron, J.E.N. (1986) (en inglés) Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Australian Institute of Marine Science.
  5. Kitano, Y. F.; Benzoni, F.; Arrigoni, R.; Shirayama, Y.; Wallace, C. C.; Fukami, H. (2014). A Phylogeny of the Family Poritidae (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) Based on Molecular and Morphological Analyses. (9(5): e98406. edición). PLoS ONE., disponible online en [1]
  6. Debelius, Heimut y Baensch, Hans A. Atlas Marino. Mergus. 1998.
  7. Borneman, Eric H. (2001-2009) (en Inglés). Aquarium corals: selection, husbandry and natural history. Microcosm. T.F.H.. Pág. 240.

Bibliografía

  • Kitano, Y. F.; Benzoni, F.; Arrigoni, R.; Shirayama, Y.; Wallace, C. C.; Fukami, H. (2014). A Phylogeny of the Family Poritidae (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) Based on Molecular and Morphological Analyses. PLoS ONE. 9(5): e98406., disponible en línea en [2]
  • Sprung,Julian y Delbeek, J.Charles (1997). The Reef Aquarium (en inglés). Ricordea Publishing.
  • Debelius, Helmut y Baensch, Hans A. (1998-2006.). Atlas Marino. Mergus.
  • Borneman, Eric H. (2001-2009). Aquarium corals: selection, husbandry and natural history (en inglés). Microcosm. T.F.H.
  • Gosliner, Behrens & Williams. (1996) (en inglés) Coral Reef Animals of the Indo-Pacific. Sea Challengers Publishers.
  • Veron, J.E.N. (1986) (en inglés) Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Australian Institute of Marine Science.
  • Erhardt, Harry y Moosleitner, Horst. (1998-2006) (en inglés) « Marine Atlas. Vol. 2 ». Mergus.

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Goniopora: Brief Summary ( Spanish; Castilian )

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 src= Goniopora fruticosa  src= Goniopora sp.  src= Colonias de Goniopora columna, abajo colonia retraída. Koh Phangan, Tailandia Goniopora.jpg  src= Goniopora sp. en Timor  src= Goniopora sp. con grupo de Aeoliscus strigatus al fondo.  src= Goniopora lobata  src= Goniopora sp. en Maldivas

Goniopora es un género de corales duros que pertenece a la familia Poritidae, del orden Scleractinia.

Su nombre común en inglés es "flowerpot coral", coral maceta, debido a la forma de su disco oral y sus tentáculos, que asemejan a flores coronando un largo tallo de cada pólipo. También se denominan corales joya.​

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Goniopora ( French )

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Goniopora est un genre de scléractiniaires (coraux durs), de la famille des Poritidae.

Description et caractéristiques

Ces coraux possèdent des polypes très charnus, qu'ils gardent étendus pendant la journée. Ceux-ci peuvent se rétracter en cas de menace dans le squelette dur. Attention toutefois, cette caractéristique est partagée par certains autres genres, comme Alveopora. On les distingue par le fait que les Goniopora ont 24 tentacules, contre 12 chez Alveopora.

Liste des espèces

 src=
Un Goniopora sp. à La Réunion.

Selon World Register of Marine Species (29 janvier 2014)[1] :

Philatélie

Ce corail figure sur une émission d'Israël de 1986 (valeur faciale : 40 s).

Notes et références

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Goniopora: Brief Summary ( French )

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Goniopora est un genre de scléractiniaires (coraux durs), de la famille des Poritidae.

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Goniopora ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Goniopora is een geslacht van koralen uit de familie van de Poritidae.

Soorten

Niet geaccepteerde soorten:

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Goniopora: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Goniopora is een geslacht van koralen uit de familie van de Poritidae.

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