No special status. They are quite a locally abundant species.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern
Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis
There is no special economic importance.
There is no special economic importance.
The Eastern Spadefoot emerges from its burrow at night, usually the nights that are humid to prevent significant water loss. Once at the surface, the toad searches for worms and various arthropods (Dundee & Rossman, 1989). Thus, S. holbrooki would be considered a carnivore.
The distribution of the Eastern Spadefoot ranges from Southern New England to Florida. The range extends west to parts of Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana. The northern range borders southern Ohio and Illinois (Conant & Collins, 1998).
The Eastern Spadefoot resides in areas that are usually sandy or loose soil. The habitats usually resemble the ones of the more arid regions of the Western Spadefoots.
Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams
Status: captivity: 12.3 years.
Scaphiopus holbrooki has a body length between 1 3/4 - 2 1/4 in. although the record was found to be 2 7/8 in. The Eastern Spadefoot, as the name implies, has an elongated spade on each hind foot that is extensively webbed. Only one spade is present on each foot and is usually black, horny, and has a spade-like tubercle on the inner surface (Dundee & Rossman, 1989).
The parotid glands are distinct. No boss in between the eyes. On the back of the toad there are two yellowish lines, one that starts at each eye, that run down the back. The formation of the two lines may resemble that of a distorted hourglass. Most of the species display an additional light line on each side of the body. The ground color of the toad is some sort of brown color, although there have been instances of species that are uniformly black or gray (Conant & Collins, 1998).
Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry
The breeding season of the Eastern Spadefoot begins in March and continues through July, depending on the location of the species. Species that live in warmer regions may breed earlier than those located in a colder area (Oliver, 1955).
The beginning of the breeding season is marked by the occurrence of a torrential rainstorm. These rains produce large areas of surface water (temporary water) that is ideal for this species. Another factor that influences the beginning of the breeding season is when males position themselves near the surface water and begin to sing (more on this topic in behavior section).
The fertilized mother produces eggs and the number of eggs are around 200 or more. The eggs are laid in strings amid vegetation. Unlike the true toads (Bufo) these eggs lack the encased tubular gelatinous covering. Development of the eggs must by rapid because the breeding location has a rapid loss of water and the eggs must develop before the water disappears. The larval period may be as quick as 12 days and the maximum period may be up to 40 days.
The tadpoles of Scaphiopus holbrooki can be identified because spadefoots are the only species having a medial anus and a mouth that is not laterally infolded. The appearance of the tadpoles are flattened (meaning that the posterior end is wider than the anterior), bronze in color, and can reach a length of 28-mm (Dundee & Rossman, 1989).
Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male: 730 days.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 730 days.
It is found in the southeastern United States, except for mountainous areas, and is also found northward along the Atlantic coast, through the Mid-Atlantic states, into southern New England, including eastern Massachusetts. It is found in inland states such as Pennsylvania and New York, but only as far westward as the Appalachian Mountains, and the Hudson River Valley in New York.
The average length of an adult eastern spadefoot is 44–57 mm (1+3⁄4–2+1⁄4 in). It is brownish in color, with two yellowish stripes on its back. These stripes, which begin on the upper eyelids, may diverge or converge, resulting in a pattern resembling a lyre or an hourglass. Some specimens may be very dark, with less distinct markings.  The skin is normally smoother and moister than other toads.  The eastern spadefoot belongs in one of only four groups of burrowing terrestrial anurans.  It has one spur on each of its back feet for burrowing. The spur is generally three times longer than the other toes.  A similar species is Hurter's spadefoot toad, which was once considered a subspecies of S. holbrookii.
Research has looked into the habitat selection of the species, and has found that it tends to hover around upland areas. It has shown preference for being close to deciduous shrub edges, low-growing pitch pine branches, and reindeer lichen. This environment provides an easy place to burrow land, with dense prey biomass, and protection from predators.
Unlike some other spadefoot toad species, such as Spea multiplicata (the Mexican or desert spadefoot) or Spea bombifrons (the plains spadefoot toad), Scaphiopus holbrookii never naturally develop cannibal tadpoles through phenotypic plasticity. Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill believe this is because the eastern spadefoot is most representative of the first spadefoot toads to evolve.
One study used Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT tags) to monitor their emergence of burrows. The study found that S. holbrookii emerge about 43% of the nights they were monitored. They are much more likely to emerge if they had emerged the night prior as well. They also tended to emerge more frequently from their burrows on nights that were warmer and more humid, or the night after/during rain. Other than the emergence after rain and during breeding season, these animals do not have a specific pattern to their burrow emergence; the movements seem to be very random. 
Although Scaphiopus holbrookii is both diurnal and nocturnal, most foraging for food sources, consisting of small invertebrates such as termites, insects, arachnids, worms, is completed during the day. Some species will completely leave to burrow in search of prey; however, a common tactic for the eastern spadefoot is to simply sit at the opening of the burrow and wait for prey to pass by. 
S. holbrookii requires fish-free ephemeral ponds for breeding but occupies other habitats such as longleaf pine and wiregrass ecosystems when not breeding. Eastern spadefoot toads are explosive breeders during sufficient rainfall and eggs are usually attached to submerged vegetation. The eastern spadefoot toad can breed in almost any month of the year. Due to the explosive breeding, once eggs hatch often food becomes limited from the large populations of tadpoles. S. holbrookii tadpoles are known to be omnivorous. In the event of food shortages some larva adapt aggressive feeding habits consuming large animal prey including other S. holbrookii tadpoles. These cannibalistic morphs develop a heightened rate and become much larger tadpoles in comparison to the non-cannibal morphs.
While not listed as an endangered species by the U.S. federal government, S. holbrookii is considered "threatened" in Massachusetts  and Connecticut. In that state and in 13 others, it is listed as a "Species of Greatest Conservation Need".