dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 16 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen was estimated to be 16 years old when it died in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Northern tamanduas use their sense of smell extensively to find food. Like most mammals, they probably also use chemical cues in communication.

Communication Channels: chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Northern tamandua populations are not currently considered at risk. However, populations throughout most of their range may be impacted by habitat destruction.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

No known negative affects of northern tamanduas on humans.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Northern tamanduas control populations of ants and termites which may potentially damage crops and orchards.

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Northern tamanduas are specialized to eat termites and ants. Since they are mostly arboreal, northern tamanduas eat mostly ants and termites that nest in the trees. They detect their prey by scent. They have developed an aversion to leaf-eating ants, army ants, and other ants that produce chemical defenses. They also can tell the difference between different castes in the termite society. They will not eat soldiers of certain noxious termites, but will search out the defenseless workers of the same species and eat them. Northern tamanduas have also been seen eating bees and their honey. In captivity they will eat fruit and meats.

Tamandua mexicana individuals on Barro Colorado Island were estimated to eat more than 9,000 ants per day.

Since they lack teeth, their stomach is portioned to include a muscular gizzard, much like that of some birds. Their tongue is coated with a sticky saliva and backward facing projections that ensnare the ants and termites.

When they eat, they noisily rip and tear insect nests and rotten wood apart. At night, sounds of tearing wood will often lead to a northern tamandua.

Animal Foods: insects

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Northern tamanduas are found in Central and South America, from southeastern Mexico south throughout Central America, and in South America west of the Andes from northern Venezuela to northern Peru.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Northern tamanduas live in many different habitats from mature and secondary rainforests and plantations to gallery forests and arid savannas. Tamanduas forage both on the ground and in the canopy of the forest. They are most common beside streams and trees with abundant vines and epiphytes, perhaps because these trees are more likely to house ant and termite nests. When they are not active, they rest in hollow trees, burrows of other animals, or natural shelters. In the Republic of Panama, northern tamanduas are often spotted swimming between islands.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: riparian

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
9.5 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Tamandua mexicana is much smaller than giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Head and body length ranges from 470 to 770 mm and tail length from 402 to 672 mm. Northern tamanduas are fawn to brownish colored and have a distinct, black "V" going down their backs. One of their names, vested anteaters, is derived from this "V" as it makes the anteater appear to be wearing a vest. Northern tamanduas always have this vivid, black "vest" on their trunk that continues from the shoulders to the rump. Southern tamanduas, northern tamandua's closest relative, only has this "V" in some specimens from the southeastern portion of their range, the part of their range which is farthest from the range of northern tamanduas. Sometimes the two species can only be distinguished by characters of the skull.

Pelage of T. mexicana is short, coarse, dense, and very bristly. The mouth opening is only about the diameter of a pencil, but the tongue can extend 40 cm. The tail is naked and prehensile, with irregular, black markings. On each hand there are four clawed digits. These claws range from 4 to 10 cm in length and are used for defense and slashing open termite and ant nests. The claw on the third digit is the longest, and the claw on the first digit is the smallest. The feet each have five clawed digits. The ears are large and protruding, but the eyes are very small.

Range mass: 2 to 7 kg.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Average basal metabolic rate: 5.124 W.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

If northern tamanduas are in a tree and are attacked by a predator, they protect themselves by getting into a tripod position that is formed by the back legs and tail. They stretch their arms out and thrash their formidable claws at the enemy. If they are attacked while they are on the ground, they protect their back by leaning against a tree or rock and grab their enemy with their strong arms. Either way, their protection is their strong forearms and the shearing power of their claws. Northern tamanduas may be preyed on by jaguars, large snakes, and eagles.

Known Predators:

  • jaguars (Panthera onca)
  • large snakes (Serpentes)
  • harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Little is known of reproduction in northern tamanduas. They mate in the fall and give birth to a single young in the spring. Births of twins have also been recorded. Females are polyestrous, with a gestation period of either 130 to 150 days or 160 to 190 days. Mothers carry their young on their back or flanks. They will set their young on a tree branch when feeding. Young stay with their mother for about a year before dispersing.

Breeding interval: Northern tamanduas breed once yearly.

Breeding season: Northern tamanduas breed in the fall.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 1.

Range gestation period: 130 to 190 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Tamandua females carry, protect, and nurse their young until they are weaned. Young tamanduas also remain with their mother until they have reached about one year old.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Harrold, A. 2007. "Tamandua mexicana" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tamandua_mexicana.html
author
Andria Harrold, Bethel College
editor
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Northern tamandua

provided by wikipedia EN

The northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) is a species of tamandua, an anteater in the family Myrmecophagidae. They live in tropical and subtropical forests from southern Mexico, through Central America, and to the edge of the northern Andes.[2]

Description

The northern tamandua is a medium-sized anteater with a prehensile tail, small eyes and ears, and a long snout. The fur is pale yellow over most of the body, with a distinctive patch of black fur over the flanks, back, and shoulders, that somewhat resembles a vest in shape.[3] The tail has fur on its upper surface for about a third of its length, but is otherwise hairless. The hind feet have five toes, while the fore feet have only four.

Males and females are similar in size and colour, and range from 102 to 130 centimetres (40 to 51 in) in total length, including the 40 to 68 centimetres (16 to 27 in) tail. Adults weigh between 3.2 to 5.4 kilograms (7.1 to 11.9 lb).[4]

The northern tamandua closely resembles its southern relative. In contrast to the northern tamandua, which always has a black-vested pattern, southern tamanduas are highly variable in appearance across their range. Some southern tamandua populations are entirely pale, pale with an incomplete vest, or dark-colored; however, others have the same black vest as northern tamandua, and are more reliably distinguished by size, ear length, various differences in skull shape, and number of tail vertebrae (as well as location, as the two species' ranges don't overlap).[5]

Like other anteaters, the northern tamandua is highly adapted to its unusual diet. The tongue is long, extensible, and covered in sticky saliva able to pick up ants and termites. It has unusually well developed muscles, attached to a large hyoid bone and rooted to the top of the sternum. The entire oral cavity is modified to accommodate this tongue, and is so elongated that the back of the soft palate is level with the fifth cervical vertebra near the base of the neck, rather than at the top of the pharynx as in most other mammals.[6] The jaw muscles and mandible are reduced, and the latter is particularly fragile. Like other anteaters, the northern tamandua has no teeth.[4]

In addition to its diet, and unlike the giant anteater, the northern tamandua is also adapted to an arboreal lifestyle. The muscles of the toes and the presence of a tough pad on the palms makes the forefeet prehensile, enabling them to grip onto projections as it climbs. The middle toe of the forefeet also bears an unusually large claw, and the toe has enough muscle and leverage to allow it to rip open wood to get at the ants within.[4]

Distribution and habitat

The northern tamandua inhabits forests from southern Mexico, through Central America to western Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador, and the northwestern corner of Peru.[2] It has been reported from various types of forest within this region, including evergreen, deciduous, mangrove swamps, cloud forests, and secondary forest. Four subspecies of T. mexicana are currently recognised:[4]

Behaviour

Northern tamanduas are mainly nocturnal, but are also often active during the day, and spend only around 40% of their time in the trees. They are active for about eight hours each day, spending the rest of the time sheltering in hollow trees. They are solitary animals, occupying home ranges of between 25 and 70 ha (62 and 170 ac). Known predators include jaguars and harpy eagles.[4]

Northern tamanduas subsist almost entirely on diets of ants and termites, although they have also been observed to eat small quantities of fruit. They prefer relatively large insects, over 4 mm (0.16 in) in length, including Camponotus, Azteca, Crematogaster, and Nasutitermes, among others. They may eat up to 9,000 insects per day, from 50 to 80 different nests,[4] which they locate by scent and then dig into with their powerful claws. They extract the ants with their long, narrow, sticky tongues, but seem to do little permanent damage to the nests, perhaps because they do not spend long at each one before being driven away by the insects' natural defences.[4]

The anteaters can communicate with each other by leaving scent marks with their anal scent glands. Though infants can be quite vocal, adults rarely make any sounds. If provoked, they can prop themselves up on their hind legs and tails using a tree or rock for support, and lash out with their claws.[4]

Reproduction

With no defined breeding season for northern tamanduas, females appear to be able to enter oestrus at any time of year. Males locate fertile females by scent, and court them with repeated sniffing and swatting with their claws. Eventually, they use their strong fore limbs and tails to secure the females while they mate.[7] Gestation lasts from 130 to 190 days, and results in the birth of a single offspring. The young anteater initially shelters in a nest in a hollow tree, but later moves about by clinging to its mother's back. Young leave the mother at about a year of age, and northern tamanduas have been reported to live up to 9.5 years in captivity.[4]

References

  1. ^ Gardner, A.L. (2005). "Order Pilosa". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c Ortega Reyes, J.; Tirira, D.G.; Arteaga, M.; Miranda, F. (2014). "Tamandua mexicana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T21349A47442649. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T21349A47442649.en. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  3. ^ "San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Tamandua or Lesser Anteater." Welcome to the San Diego Zoo. 2009 Zoological Society of San Diego. 16 Aug. 2009
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Navarette, D. & Ortega, J. (2011). "Tamandua mexicana (Pilosa: Myrmecophagidae)". Mammalian Species. 43 (1): 56–63. doi:10.1644/874.1.
  5. ^ Wetzel, Ralph M. (1975). "The species of Tamandua Gray (Edentata, Myrmecophagidae)". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 88 (11): 95–112.
  6. ^ Reiss, K.Z. (1997). "Myology of the feeding apparatus of myrmecophagid anteaters (Xenarthra: Myrmecophagidae)". Mammalian Species. 4 (1): 87–117. doi:10.1023/A:1027366129277. S2CID 42891487.
  7. ^ D. Matlaga (2006). "Mating behavior of the northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) in Costa Rica". Edentata. 7: 46–48. doi:10.1896/1413-4411.7.1.46.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Northern tamandua: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= Gamboa, Panama

The northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) is a species of tamandua, an anteater in the family Myrmecophagidae. They live in tropical and subtropical forests from southern Mexico, through Central America, and to the edge of the northern Andes.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN