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Octolasion lacteum

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Octolasion lacteum is a species of earthworm of the genus Octolasion. In New Zealand it has been found in West Coast soils and in Canterbury.[2] They are found in mostly moist areas deep under the soil as they feed in the nutrients within the soil.[3][4] Unlike other worm species, these are known to survive in acidic soil as well as soil that is not as organic compared to other places.[5] They provide some important roles in the ecosystem as well as threats to other species as well. After a drought, they help the soil get more organic by adding more carbon dioxide in the soil and the waste from the O. lacteum also provides nutrients for the soil.[6] In another case, they can also be invasive in a way that they suck up carbon in the soil which means plants have less causing a disruption to the food web.[7] Lastly, they reproduce by cross parthogenic reproduction.[8]

Taxonomy

Octolasion lacteum is a species of earthworm in the genus Octolasion, family Lumbricidae.[9] They were first in New Zealand in N.A. Martin's garden around the 1970s.[4] The DNA found within the specific species is also found to be able to deal with high radiation exposure.[10]

Habitat

Mostly all O. lacteum live under soil in moist environments mainly. They are commonly found inside mould and muddy soil.[11] They can be found in a broader range of environmental conditions unlike other worm species. They can be found in acidic soil with a pH of 4.7 as well as less organic soils with a organic matter[12] of 7.3%. In some cases, they can also be found in an organic matter of between 4.3% and 5.5%.[5] Also, they are found to compete with plants for resources. As they are known to eat a lot, plants suck up the nutrients available for them limiting the growth of the worms. In order for them to survive, the environment needs to be plant free in a moist muddy environment.[3] They are also found to be able to survive in areas of high radiation exposure.[10] Unlike other species of worms, O. lacteum lives deep under the soil feeding on soil nutrients rather than leaf litter.[7]

Ecology

Earthworms are ecologically important in restoring carbon levels in the soil after a drought.[13] They also help increase mineral nitrogen in soil.[13] Their waste products also restore other nutrients.[6] In some instances, O. lacteum can become invasive and usurp all the carbon in the soil, starving local vegetation.[7]

As tiny as they may be, they have an important role in which they help the ecosystem as well as humans. After a drought, they help the soil get better by increasing the rate of Carbon dioxide in the soil which is used by plants to grow.[13] They also help increase mineral Nitrogen in soil which is essential for soil. This is important to humans in a way because with good quality of soil bring a better growth rate of plants and trees which are used daily by almost every human and animal in the planet.[13] After depositing waste from their bodies, the waste product provides nutrients for the soil to be able to pass on to the next level on the food web. In some instances, Octolasion Lacteum can also be a threat to the environment.[6] In some areas, they become invasive and suck up Carbon in the soil causing a loss for the trees and other plants growing in the area.[3]

Reproduction

Almost all species of worms have the same method of reproduction. In the family of Lumbricidae, reproduction occurs by cross parthenogenesis reproduction.[8] Parthenogenesis reproduction is a type of asexual reproduction that was not require fertilization of the egg cell.[14] This is a process of asexual reproduction that occurs by bipartioning, stolonisation, or budding.[8] In males, the funnels are full of spermatozoa while spermathecae is full of spermatozoa as well. The most active time for reproduction is usually in the spring or in the autumn when the conditions are moist which makes it ideal for survival of the worms.[8] Although all details of the sperm transfer is not known, it is observed that the clitellum tends to move backwards developing the seminal groves that connect the male pores to the tubercula pubertatis. [8] After that, the spermatozoa flows through the seminal groves which then goes to the partners spermathecae pores.[8]

References

  1. ^ Center, Smithsonian Environmental Research (16 April 2010), Octolasion lacteum_Apr 16, 2010, retrieved 31 March 2021
  2. ^ Kim, Young-Nam; Dickinson, Nicholas; Bowie, Mike; Robinson, Brett; Boyer, Stephane (2017). "Molecular identification and distribution of native and exotic earthworms in New Zealand human-modified soils". New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 41 (2). doi:10.20417/nzjecol.41.23.
  3. ^ a b c Bonkowski, Michael; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Matthias (1 September 1998). "Interactions of earthworms (Octolasion lacteum), millipedes (Glomeris marginata) and plants (Hordelymus europaeus) in a beechwood on a basalt hill: implications for litter decomposition and soil formation". Applied Soil Ecology. 9 (1–3): 161–166. doi:10.1016/s0929-1393(98)00070-5. ISSN 0929-1393.
  4. ^ a b Martin, N. A. (1 September 1977). "Guide to the lumbricid earthworms of New Zealand pastures". New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 5 (3): 301–309. doi:10.1080/03015521.1977.10425985. ISSN 0301-5521.
  5. ^ a b Kim, Young-Nam; Dickinson, Nicholas; Bowie, Mike; Robinson, Brett; Boyer, Stephane (2017). "Molecular identification and distribution of native and exotic earthworms in New Zealand human-modified soils". New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 41 (2). doi:10.20417/nzjecol.41.23.
  6. ^ a b c Scheu, Stefan (1993), "Analysis of the microbial nutrient status in soil microcompartments: earthworm faeces from a basalt—limestone gradient", Soil Structure/Soil Biota Interrelationships, Elsevier, pp. 575–586, doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-81490-6.50046-7, ISBN 978-0-444-81490-6, retrieved 31 March 2021
  7. ^ a b c Xia, Lijun; Szlavecz, Katalin; Swan, Christopher M.; Burgess, Jerry L. (1 July 2011). "Inter- and intra-specific interactions of Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister, 1843) and Octolasion lacteum (Örley, 1881) (Lumbricidae) and the implication for C cycling". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 43 (7): 1584–1590. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.04.009. ISSN 0038-0717.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Cosín, Darío J. Díaz; Novo, Marta; Fernández, Rosa (28 September 2010), "Reproduction of Earthworms: Sexual Selection and Parthenogenesis", Biology of Earthworms, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 69–86, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14636-7_5, ISBN 978-3-642-14635-0, retrieved 31 March 2021
  9. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Octolasion lacteum". www.itis.gov. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  10. ^ a b Newbold, Lindsay K.; Robinson, Alex; Rasnaca, I.; Lahive, Elma; Soon, Gweon H.; Lapied, Emmanuel; Oughton, Deborah; Gashchak, Sergey; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Spurgeon, David J. (1 December 2019). "Genetic, epigenetic and microbiome characterisation of an earthworm species (Octolasion lacteum) along a radiation exposure gradient at Chernobyl". Environmental Pollution. 255 (Pt 1): 113238. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113238. ISSN 0269-7491. PMID 31655460.
  11. ^ K., Kasprzak (1 January 1989). Zoogeography and habitat distribution of earthworms (Lumbricidae) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeidae) of the Carpathian Mountains (Poland). Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. OCLC 723505810.
  12. ^ "Reading and Interpreting a Soil Test". www.dekalbasgrowdeltapine.com. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d Potthoff, M.; Joergensen, R.G.; Wolters, V. (1 April 2001). "Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 33 (4–5): 583–591. doi:10.1016/s0038-0717(00)00200-5. ISSN 0038-0717.
  14. ^ B. A., Biology; A. S., Nursing. "Parthenogenesis and Reproduction Without Fertilization". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
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Octolasion lacteum: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Octolasion lacteum is a species of earthworm of the genus Octolasion. In New Zealand it has been found in West Coast soils and in Canterbury. They are found in mostly moist areas deep under the soil as they feed in the nutrients within the soil. Unlike other worm species, these are known to survive in acidic soil as well as soil that is not as organic compared to other places. They provide some important roles in the ecosystem as well as threats to other species as well. After a drought, they help the soil get more organic by adding more carbon dioxide in the soil and the waste from the O. lacteum also provides nutrients for the soil. In another case, they can also be invasive in a way that they suck up carbon in the soil which means plants have less causing a disruption to the food web. Lastly, they reproduce by cross parthogenic reproduction.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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