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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 10 years (wild)
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Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
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de Magalhaes, J. P.
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Brief Summary

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The white crappie (pronounced croppy), Promoxis annularis, is a popular freshwater angling fish from the sunfish family, Centrarchidae, native to a central strip of North America between the Appalachians and Minnesota, as far north as Ontario and south to the Gulf of Mexico. Its current range covers most of North America, as it has been widely introduced for game purposes. Morphologically very similar to its close relative the black crappie (P. nigromaculatus), with which it shares a range, the white crappie can be definitively distinguished by having 5 or 6 dorsal spines, whereas black crappie have 7 or 8. Hardy nocturnal carnivores, white crappies live in many types of waterways (ponds, lakes, creeks and rivers, occupying turbid waters more often than does the black crappie), eating mostly other fishes and invertebrates. Like other sunfish crappies travel in schools, and build mounded nests, often together in large colonies. Both species of crappies have a high reproductive rate, are fast growing and mature within 2-3 years so are often very abundant and regularly overpopulate their environment. Reaching a common size of 7-8 inches, white crappies are the state fish of Louisiana, a mild-tasting fish considered one of the top “pan fish,” and common in Cajun cuisine. (Texas Parks and Wildlife; Bridges; Hammerson 2009; Hammerson 2009; Wikipedia 2012(a); Wikipedia 2012(b))
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Life Cycle

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Deposits eggs in a variety of aquatic plants.
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Trophic Strategy

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Occurs in sand-bottomed and mud-bottomed pools and backwaters of creeks and small to large rivers, and lakes and ponds. Often found in turbid water.
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Pascualita Sa-a
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Biology

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Occurs in sand-bottomed and mud-bottomed pools and backwaters of creeks and small to large rivers, and lakes and ponds. Often found in turbid water (Ref. 5723, 10294). Adult feeds on forage fishes such as shad (Ref. 10294). Younger crappie consumes small invertebrates, including microcrustaceans and small insects (Ref. 10294).
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Importance

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gamefish: yes
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White crappie

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The white crappie (Pomoxis annularis) is a freshwater fish found in North America, one of the two species of crappies.[2] Alternate common names for the species include goldring and silver perch.[3] USS Goldring is named for the fish. The genus name Pomoxis refers to crappies' sharp operculum, while the species name annularis means 'having rings', i.e., it has vaguely vertical bars on the body.[4]

Description

White crappies are morphologically similar to black crappies. They have 5–10 dark vertical bars along their bodies, rather than the randomly scattered spots like the black crappie. The white crappie has a silvery color with green or brown shades along its back, with dark lateral bars along its side, and a white belly. The dorsal fins of the white crappie starts farther back on the body than those of the black crappie. The anal fin is about the same size as the dorsal fin.[5] The white crappie has six dorsal fin spines, whereas the black crappie has seven or eight dorsal fin spines.[5] White crappies are also slightly more elongated than black crappies.[6] The white crappie is a deep-bodied fish with a flattened body, or a depth that is one-third of the length of the fish. White crappies have spinous rays and ctenoid fish scales found in advanced teleosts. The exposed part of the scale has tiny tooth-like projections (cteni). Both species of crappies have a terminal mouth position with many small, conical teeth in two rows along the mouth and are called cardiform because they resemble a tool used for wool carding. Crappies belong to the family Centrarchidae in the infraclass Teleostei, which is one of three infraclasses in the class Actinopterygii.[7]

The white crappie rarely exceeds 2 pounds (0.91 kg), and typically lives 2–7 years. The species is generally about 9–10 inches (23–25 cm) in length as an adult.[5] The current for all-tackle fishing world record for a white crappie is 2.35 kg (5.2 lb).[8]

Distribution

White crappies are native to the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi River basins expanding from New York and southern Ontario westward to South Dakota and southward to Texas. This species has a large geographic range in the United States and currently has a stable population. Currently, this species is listed as a least concern species for conservation efforts.[1][9]

Habitat

White crappies can be found in large rivers, reservoirs, and lakes. White crappies are more tolerant of turbid (murky) waters than black crappies. The white crappie usually outnumbers the black crappie in turbid waters and in areas with little rooted aquatic vegetation[10] White crappies are most commonly found in rivers and low-velocity areas such as pools and backwaters of rivers. They are most abundant in lakes and reservoirs larger than 5 acres.[11] The white crappie can be found in the open water during the mornings and evenings, but during the day this species is found in shallower, quiet waters (6–12 feet (1.8–3.7 m) deep) surrounded by structure.[1]

Reproduction

White crappies spawn in May and June when the water temperature reaches 56 °F. Males construct nests by creating small, bowl-shaped depressions on the bottom around brush, rocks, and logs in the shallow water. During the spawning season, males develop dark coloration on their throats. Females lay 5,000 to 30,000 eggs. The males guard these nests until the fry swim away.[6] Males guard these nests because it helps ensure the success of their genes being passed on to the next generation. The white crappie typically grows 3–5 inches (7.6–12.7 cm) within the first year of its life and can grow an additional 3-4 in in the second year. The white crappies reach maturity around their second or third year.[2] The maximum lifespan of white crappies is 8 to 10 years with the average lifespan being 3 to 4 years in unmanaged waters and 6 years in managed waters.[12]

Diet

White crappies are neither cruise- nor ambush-feeding strategists. Instead, they swim intermittently and only search for prey when stationary. This strategy is considered saltatory, or pause-and-travel search. Using this strategy, juveniles can grow rapidly in the first few days of life. This strategy is energetically favored to reduce search time for the species. White crappies in the larval and juvenile stages of life eat zooplankton and continue to feed primarily on small invertebrates during their first year of life.[6][13][14]

When white crappies reach a length of 12–15 centimetres (4.7–5.9 in), they are considered adult. The adults feeds mainly on small fish such as minnows and young American shad,[12] and large invertebrates such as crayfish and hellgrammites.[11][15] Their diet can vary depending on their location. They feed the most in June through October. In the spring, they feed moderately, with their activity slowing during the winter months. In Mississippi, they feed on mayflies such as Hexagenia atrocaudata and Pentagenia vittigera. In Illinois, and probably elsewhere, they feast on American gizzard shad. In Pennsylvania and Ohio, adults eat small common carp, yellow perch, bluegill, and other white crappies. The terminal mouth position, sometimes known as the normal position, allows for this species to feed on what is in front of it.[12]

References

  1. ^ a b c NatureServe (2013). "Pomoxis annularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T202602A18232424. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T202602A18232424.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b "White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis)". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department.
  3. ^ Simbeck, Rob (2010). "For Wildlife Watchers: Crappie". South Carolina Wildlife. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013.
  4. ^ Wallus, Robert; Simon, Thomas P. (2008). Reproductive Biology and Early Life History of Fishes in the Ohio River Drainage. Vol. 6. CRC Press. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-4200-0361-1. annularis, Latin: “having rings,” probably in reference to the vague vertical bars on the body
  5. ^ a b c "White Crappie". MDC Discover Nature. Missouri Department of Conservation.
  6. ^ a b c "Details: White Crappie". Iowa Department of Natural Resources.
  7. ^ "Comprehensive Report Species - Pomoxis annularis". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved June 29, 2006.
  8. ^ IGFA World Record:White Crappie - (Pomoxis annularis)
  9. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2006). "Pomoxis annularis" in FishBase. March 2006 version.
  10. ^ "White Crappie". Ohio Department of Natural Resources.
  11. ^ a b "Black Crappie, White Crappie". Chicago Area Paddling/Fishing Guide. Ripco.
  12. ^ a b c "Pomoxis annularis (Crappie)".
  13. ^ O'Brian, W. J.; Evans, B. I.; Howick, G. L. (2011). "A New View of the Predation Cycle of a Planktivorous Fish, White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis)" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 43 (10): 1894. doi:10.1139/f86-234.
  14. ^ Browman, Howard I.; O'Brien, W. John (1992). "The ontogeny of search behavior in the white crappie, Pomoxis annularis" (PDF). Environmental Biology of Fishes. 34 (2): 181–195. doi:10.1007/bf00002393. S2CID 23743046.
  15. ^ "Crappie Fishing Tips". Fishing Tips Depot.

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White crappie: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The white crappie (Pomoxis annularis) is a freshwater fish found in North America, one of the two species of crappies. Alternate common names for the species include goldring and silver perch. USS Goldring is named for the fish. The genus name Pomoxis refers to crappies' sharp operculum, while the species name annularis means 'having rings', i.e., it has vaguely vertical bars on the body.

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