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White Lace Sponge

Clathrina coriacea (Montagu 1814)

Clathrina coriacea

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Clathrina coriacea is a species of calcareous sponge belonging to the class Calcarea and family Clathrinidae.[1] Species in the genus Clathrina are composed of calcium carbonate tube-like skeletons containing spicules.[2] The sponge can be located in shallow waters widely distributed along North Atlantic coasts, as well as on other coasts.[1]

Anatomy

This three-dimensional calcareous sponge species occurs as flat white or yellow encrustations and can also be found with grey, pale rose or orange colors.[3] The sponge ranges from 1 cm to 3 cm in diameter with a central osculum and close inspection reveals a tightly-knit latticework of tubes.[4] The calcareous spicules are all of a similar shape, three-rayed triactines. The equiangular triradiate spicules have spicule ray junctions that are planar with large dimensions.[5] The tight tubes form a delicate common oscule and the skeleton is made of the calcareous spicules.[4] At younger ages the species are thin and when mature they are soft with tight tubes.[3]

Habitat

Environment

his is largely a shallow-water species though it has been recorded at depths of up to 650 m. The substrate is often rock but this sponge is also common on kelp holdfasts and on other sponge species. The sponge is normally found with Dendrodoa grossularia in caves and canyons, but can also be located on the shore on rocks.[6] Additionally, the sponge can be found in dense amounts with Dendrodoa in gullies and tunnels encountering wave-surges.[7] This calcareous sponge species can also be found in mud banks.[8]

Distribution

This species is found along east Atlantic coasts from as far North as the Arctic and down south near South Africa, but is mostly well-defined in the North Atlantic and on the coasts of the British Isles.[9] This species has been found in the Lingurian Sea with purple spots around the sponge. It was determined that these purple spots on the sponge was a web of hyphae of a fungus that causes these spots to appear.[10]

Behavior

Reproduction

The reproduction time period of Clathrina coriacea is from the summer and fall months of July to October.[11] This sponge species can undergo both asexual and sexual reproduction and is also known to be a hermaphrodite.[12] This species of sponge undergoes fragmentation in the summer and reproduction is influenced by environmental factors including temperature. Oogenesis is common in this sponge species and they have a total cleavage which allows the species to form blastula larva that has one posterior granular cell.[13] Once in the parent, the larva blastomeres will migrate into the blastocoel. In order for this calcareous sponge species to reproduce, there is a required minimum size for the adult.[14] Buds on the external side of the sponge have been previously identified before.[15]

Feeding

The Clathrina coriacea are omnivores and feed on several Chaetoceros species.[16] Calcareous sponges are filter feeders that can filter out heterotrophic bacteria in large amounts of water and feed on picoplankton ([17] These sponges are significant in the process of cycling food particles throughout the water column and rocky habitats.[17] They have numerous predators including the Red Reef Hermit Crab and several shrimp species such as the Sand Snapping Shrimp and Dotted Pistol Shrimp.

Locomotion

The Clathrina coriacea has been observed contracting and changing shape to move.[18] In general, locomotion in sponges occurs in outward movements as the sponge moves its spicules.[18] This species of sponge does not have a radial center, so the locomotion and contracting of the sponge is much slower than other species such as Leucosolenia botryoides.[18]

References

  1. ^ a b "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Clathrina coriacea (Montagu, 1814)". www.marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  2. ^ "Marine Species Identification Portal : Clathrina coriacea". species-identification.org. Retrieved 2021-04-05.
  3. ^ a b "Clathrina coriacea - Marine Life Encyclopedia". www.habitas.org.uk. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  4. ^ a b "Marine Species Identification Portal : Clathrina coriacea". species-identification.org. Retrieved 2021-04-05.
  5. ^ Johnson, Marion Fischel (2011-02-14). "A comparative study of the external form and skeleton of the calcareous sponges Clathrina coriacea and Clathrina blanca from Santa Catalina Island, California". Canadian Journal of Zoology. doi:10.1139/z78-230.
  6. ^ "Clathrina coriacea - Marine Life Encyclopedia". www.habitas.org.uk. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  7. ^ "Dendrodoa grossularia and Clathrina coriacea on wave-surged vertical infralittoral rock: Marine Evidence–based Sensitivity Assessment (MarESA) Review" (PDF). doi:10.17031/MARLINHAB.190.1. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ "Marine Species Identification Portal : Clathrina coriacea". species-identification.org. Retrieved 2021-04-05.
  9. ^ "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Clathrina coriacea (Montagu, 1814)". www.marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  10. ^ Gaino, E.; Bo, M.; Betti, F.; Bertolino, M.; Scoccia, F.; Bavestrello, G. (2014-10-02). "Ultrastructural evidence of a fungus-sponge association in the Ligurian Sea: a case study of Clathrina coriacea (Porifera: Calcarea)". Italian Journal of Zoology. 81 (4): 501–507. doi:10.1080/11250003.2014.953219. ISSN 1125-0003.
  11. ^ Johnson, M. F. (1978-03-01). "Studies on the reproductive cycles of the calcareous sponges Clathrina coriacea and C. blanca". Marine Biology. 50 (1): 73–79. doi:10.1007/BF00390543. ISSN 1432-1793.
  12. ^ "white lace sponge - Encyclopedia of Life". eol.org. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  13. ^ Johnson, Marion Fischel (2020-09-03). "Gametogenesis and Embryonic Development in the Calcareous Sponges Clathrina coriacea and C. blanca from Santa Catalina Island, California". 183.
  14. ^ Padua, André; Lanna, Emilio; Klautau, Michelle (2012-06-07). "Macrofauna inhabiting the sponge Paraleucilla magna (Porifera: Calcarea) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom: 1–10. doi:10.1017/s0025315412000434. ISSN 0025-3154.
  15. ^ "Marine Species Identification Portal : Clathrina coriacea". species-identification.org. Retrieved 2021-04-05.
  16. ^ "white lace sponge - Encyclopedia of Life". eol.org. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  17. ^ a b Perea-Blázquez, Alejandra; Price, Kylie; Davy, Simon K.; Bell, James J. (2010-10-12). "Diet Composition of Two Temperate Calcareous Sponges: Leucosolenia echinata and Leucetta sp. from the Wellington South Coast, New Zealand". The Open Marine Biology Journal. 4 (1).
  18. ^ a b c Bond, Calhoun (2013). "Locomotion and contraction in an asconoid calcareous sponge". Invertebrate Biology. 132 (4): 283–290. doi:10.1111/ivb.12035. ISSN 1744-7410.
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Clathrina coriacea: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Clathrina coriacea is a species of calcareous sponge belonging to the class Calcarea and family Clathrinidae. Species in the genus Clathrina are composed of calcium carbonate tube-like skeletons containing spicules. The sponge can be located in shallow waters widely distributed along North Atlantic coasts, as well as on other coasts.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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