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Behavior

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Odonates have highly developed sight. The large compound eyes are used to capture prey.

Communication Channels: chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; infrared/heat ; tactile ; chemical

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Conservation Status

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This species is secure and currently not of any conservation concern.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Life Cycle

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Eggs hatch in the early spring of the following year after overwintering. They emerge when the water temperature reaches about 10 degrees Celsius. At the beginning of the first free-living larval stadium (period between one molt and the next) ecdysis (shedding of the outer skin) occurs. This larval stage is restricted to the spring and summer seasons. After molting, the larva increases in size and changes in coloring can occur. This process takes place over about an hour.

After going through a series of molts S. vicinum begins showing signs of becoming an adult dragonfly. These signs include: setae on the dorsum of the head, contraction of the labium and microtrichia on the wings. It can take an individual anywhere from one to seven weeks to become ready to emerge as an adult. The first adults to emerge of this species are seen in late June. Once an individual has become an adult, it has two main goals: to eat and to mate. The pre-reproductive stage in S. vicinum can last anywhere from 30-87 days, depending on the latitude where they are found. Once they reach sexual maturity, individuals seek a mate, lay eggs and die soon afterward.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Benefits

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Larva can sometimes deplete fish fry populations that fishermen want to culture.

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Benefits

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Dragonflies can be used to protect humans from mosquitoes and blackflies. One experiment has show that larval species of Bradinopyga geminata were able to destroy an entire population of mosquitoes within a 194-liter drum in a matter of hours. Application of this method would allow pest control of mosquitoes without the use of chemicals. Several studies have show that Sympetrum species are apparently immune to pollutants. This could possibly help humans, in the long run, if we can develop ways to deal with pollutants if understood in detail.

Positive Impacts: research and education; controls pest population

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Associations

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Dragonflies help keep insect populations at a stable level. Sympetrum vicinum has a commensal relationship with the species mentioned below and are also parasitized by certain species of mites. Parasitic chironomid fly larvae can be found on the back of the head, prothorax, wing sheaths and legs of S. vicinum. Spiroxys contortus uses S. vicinum as an intermediate host (turtles are the definitive host).

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Haematoloechus medioplexus
  • Phyllodistomum spp.
  • Spiroxys contortus
  • Chironomidae
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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Trophic Strategy

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The larvae of this species are sprawlers. They lie on pond bottoms and attack prey as it comes into their immediate area. The family of dragonflies that includes S. vicinum, Libellulidae, are all perching adults. This means that they sit and wait for their prey (small flying insects) to fly by. Once they see it, they take off and pursue it, with an amazing success rate of 97%. The study recording these data was done through keen observations from binoculars and video recorders. Trays were set out within patches of Eleocharis to maximize the test results by limiting the potential landing site area within two artificial ponds.

Foods eaten by larval S. vicinum include medium-sized water fleas and relatives of Cladocera; Ostracoda; Oligochaeta; burrowing and climbing flies of the family Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae. Sympetrum vicinum will also eat larva of smaller dragonfly species.

Animal Foods: insects; aquatic or marine worms; aquatic crustaceans; zooplankton

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore , Eats non-insect arthropods)

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Distribution

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Sympetrum vicinum is widely distributed throughout much of North America. The species occurs throughout the most of the U.S. except the desert Southwest, the northern Rocky Mountains, peninsular Florida and the Gulf coasts of Louisiana and Texas. It's found in southeastern and extreme southwestern Canada.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Habitat

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Sympetrum vicinum inhabits marshes, lakes, ponds and bogs in areas that are usually somewhat wooded. The ponds that this species inhabits must be permanent and have slow flowing water.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams

Wetlands: marsh ; swamp ; bog

Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; estuarine

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Life Expectancy

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The life cycle of this dragonfly is approximately one year.

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Kerry Yurewicz, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Morphology

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Sympetrum vicinum has a dull yellow face, which in males becomes reddish toward maturity. The pterothorax is red on the front while the sides are an olive color. This species has reduced venation with hyaline (clear, colorless) wings with a yellow base. The abdomen is slender and red, and is lighter than in other species of Sympetrum.

Average mass: 5.5 g.

Range length: 26 to 35 mm.

Range wingspan: 21 to 23 mm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes colored or patterned differently

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Renee Sherman Mulcrone
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Associations

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When spotted by predators the larvae form simply lies immobile. Large individuals, when attacked by the snake Regina alleni will actually bite the snake's mouth, which makes the snake bleed. Usually the snake will let go of the dragonfly larva. For some reason these snakes swallow dragonfly larvae head first. It has also been hypothesized, but not documented, that individuals may produce sounds to ward off predators.

Known Predators:

  • spinycheek crayfish (Oronectes limosus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss )
  • sunfish species (Lepomis)
  • striped swamp snake (Regina alleni)
  • fish that feed in shallow fresh waters (Actinopterygii)
  • possibly also other dragonfly species (Odonata)
  • mantises (Mantidae)
  • crows, jays ,and magpies (Corvidae)
  • green frogs (Lithobates clamitans clamitans)
  • turtles (Testudines)
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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

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Once sexual maturity has been reached males begin looking for mates. When a female is found and the male determines visually and physically that she is of the same species, copulation will take place. The male places sperm into the female's genital tract. The eggs are laid in summer and "complete katatrepsis" (embryo revolution) occurs in autumn. The insects then pass the winter as fully formed embryos. Once oviposition has taken place the sexes separate and stop flying in tandem.

Breeding season: Late summer to early autumn

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

There is no parental investment beyond laying of eggs.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female)

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Winchell, J. 2003. "Sympetrum vicinum" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sympetrum_vicinum.html
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Joshua Winchell, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Sympetrum vicinum

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Sympetrum vicinum, the yellow-legged meadowhawk or autumn meadowhawk,[2] is a member of the Libellulidae family and grows to 26–35 mm long.

Description

Naiad

This is a small naiad, with a length of 12 to 15 mm (0.47 to 0.59 in). It is mottled green and brown in color. The abdomen has several large hooks along the top, and the last two abdominal segments have a single, large, rear-facing spine on each side. This species has bigger eyes than other members of this genus.

Adult

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Juvenile male, Ottawa, Ontario

This is a small dragonfly, with a length of 30 to 35 mm (1.2 to 1.4 in). The wings are mostly clear but have a small patch of yellowish to orange clouding at the base of each hindwing. Mature males are brownish black on the face and thorax and have a red abdomen, while immature males have a yellow thorax and a yellowish brown abdomen. Females have a brown thorax and a brownish-red abdomen. As its common name implies, the legs of the adults are yellow.

Range and habitat

You can see this dragonfly in, and around marshes, ponds and slow-moving streams throughout the eastern United States, southern Canada, the Great Plains, and the west coast of North America. This species has two separate populations in North America. One is found from Ontario east to Nova Scotia, extending south into the U.S. to Texas and Florida. The other population occurs in British Columbia, Washington, and Idaho.

Adult flight season

Late July to early November[2]

Diet

Naiad

Naiads feed on a wide variety of aquatic insects, such as mosquito larvae, other aquatic fly larvae, mayfly larvae, and freshwater shrimp. They will also eat very small fish and tadpoles.

Adult

The dragonfly will eat almost any soft-bodied flying insect including mosquitoes, flies, small moths, mayflies, and flying ants or termites.

Ecology

The naiads live in the debris of the bottoms of lakes and ponds. They do not actively pursue prey but wait for it to pass by, a strategy which affords them protection from other predators. The naiads emerge, or make the transition to adult dragonflies, at night. Adults fly from early August through October. This species flies later in the fall than any other species in the Northwest, with observations as late as October 29 in Idaho, and into November in Washington. The adults of this species hunt flying insects from perches on rocks or bare branches. The Latin name for this genus, Sympetrum, means "with rock" and refers to their habit of basking on rocks to absorb heat early in the day. This dragonfly is extremely abundant where it occurs, with large numbers of pairs flying and laying eggs in tandem.

Reproduction

 src=
Tandem position, male in front

The female flies with the male still attached after mating (a position called "in tandem") and lays her eggs near the shoreline of lakes and ponds by dipping the tip of her abdomen on the surface of the water. Large-mouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) have been observed following mated pairs of dragonflies as they fly just above the surface, and then eating them as they touch the surface to lay eggs.

Conservation

Populations are widespread, abundant, and secure.

References

  1. ^ "Sympetrum vicinum (Hagen, 1861) - EOL". Retrieved 2009-03-27.
  2. ^ a b Mead, Kurt. (2009) Dragonflies of the North Woods, Second Edition, Duluth, MN:Kollath+Stensaas Publ. p.152-153.
  • Dunkle, Sidney W. (2000). Dragonflies Through Binoculars: A Field Guide to Dragonflies of North America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511268-7.
  • Sympetrum vicinum, Idaho Museum of Natural History
  • Corbet, P.S. (1999). Dragonflies: Behavior and Ecology of Odonata. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press. p. 829.
  • Needham, J.G.; Corbet P.S. (1955). Dragonflies of North America. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press. p. 615.
  • Logan, E. R. 1967. The Odonata of Idaho. Unpublished M. S. thesis. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA, 105 pp.
  • Needham, J. G. and M. J. Westfall. 1955. Dragonflies of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA, 615 pp.
  • Paulson, D. R. 1999. Dragonflies of Washington. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington, USA, 32 pp.
  • Walker, E. M. and P. S. Corbet. 1975. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, Vol. III. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 307 pp.
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Sympetrum vicinum: Brief Summary

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Sympetrum vicinum, the yellow-legged meadowhawk or autumn meadowhawk, is a member of the Libellulidae family and grows to 26–35 mm long.

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Sympetrum vicinum ( Dutch; Flemish )

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Insecten

Sympetrum vicinum is een libellensoort uit de familie van de korenbouten (Libellulidae), onderorde echte libellen (Anisoptera).[1]

De wetenschappelijke naam Sympetrum vicinum is voor het eerst geldig gepubliceerd in 1861 door Hagen.

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Geplaatst op:
29-10-2011
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Sympetrum vicinum ( Polish )

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Sympetrum vicinum – gatunek ważki z rodzaju Sympetrum należącego do rodziny ważkowatych. Występuje na terenie Ameryki Północnej.

Przypisy

  1. Sympetrum vicinum, w: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ang.).

Bibliografia

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Sympetrum vicinum: Brief Summary ( Polish )

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Sympetrum vicinum – gatunek ważki z rodzaju Sympetrum należącego do rodziny ważkowatych. Występuje na terenie Ameryki Północnej.

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Sympetrum vicinum ( Vietnamese )

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Sympetrum vicinum là loài chuồn chuồn trong họ Libellulidae. Loài này được Hagen mô tả khoa học đầu tiên năm 1861.[2]

Hình ảnh

Chú thích

  1. ^ “Sympetrum vicinum (Hagen, 1861) - EOL”. Truy cập ngày 27 tháng 3 năm 2009.
  2. ^ “vicinum”. World Odonata List. Truy cập ngày 17 tháng 6 năm 2013.

Tham khảo


Hình tượng sơ khai Bài viết về họ chuồn chuồn ngô Libellulidae này vẫn còn sơ khai. Bạn có thể giúp Wikipedia bằng cách mở rộng nội dung để bài được hoàn chỉnh hơn.


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Sympetrum vicinum: Brief Summary ( Vietnamese )

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Sympetrum vicinum là loài chuồn chuồn trong họ Libellulidae. Loài này được Hagen mô tả khoa học đầu tiên năm 1861.

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