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Comments

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An ornamental tree, the bark is used as tanning material and wood ash is used as mordant in dyeing. The pulp of pods is used in Bengal to flavour tobacco. The durable wood is used for various purposes. Various parts of the plant are also reputed to have medicinal properties.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Description

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Tree, up to 20 m tall. Bark in young tree smooth and ash coloured becoming rough and dark brown in old. Stipules deltoid, acute, 1-2 mm long, caducous. Rachis 12-25 cm long, terete, glabrous. Leaves compound 22.5-40 cm long, with 3-8 pairs of opposite leaflets, 6-10 (20) cm long, smooth above, hairy below. Flowers arranged in drooping racemes, each raceme c. 10-45 cm long; peduncle 2-10 cm long. Pedicel 3.7-5.8 cm long, slender, slightly hairy or quite smooth, bracts 8-10 mm long, ovate, acute, hairy. Calyx 5, green, folded backward on the stalk, hairy, ovate, 9 mm long. Petals 5, obovate, blunt, distinctly veined. Stamens 10, 3 longest stamens much curled and bear large oblong anthers, 4 smaller medium ones are quite straight, 3 remaining stamens are quite short, erect and sterile. Ovary slender, thinly appressed hairy, style sturdy, stigma punctiform. Pods terete, glabrous, indehiscent, 40-60 cm long, 1.5-2 cm broad, black glossy brown, 40-100 seeded.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Widely cultivated in Africa, W. Asia, Himalaya, India, S.E. Asia, Malaysia, China, Polynesia; probably a native of E.India, Burma, Malay Isl.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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Distribution

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Distribution: W. Pakistan, Swat and Hazara eastwards, ascending to 4000 ft. and commonly planted in gardens; common in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of India, Burma and Ceylon.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Elevation Range

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150-1400 m
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
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K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
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eFloras.org
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Flower/Fruit

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Fl. Per.: April June.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Cassia Fistula L. Sp. PI. 377. 1753
Cathartocarpus Fistula Pers. Svn. 1: 459. 1805. Bactyrilobium Fistula Willd. Knum. Hort. Berol. 440. 1809.
A tree, up to 20 m. tall, the trunk up to 7 dm. in diameter, the twigs glabrous or nearly so. Stipules linear-lanceolate, small, fugacious; leaves often 4 dm. long or longer, the stout petiole 10 cm. long or less; leaflets 4-8 pairs, short-stalked, chartaceous, ovate to ovate-oblong or ovatelanceolate, 7-20 cm. long, acutish or bluntly acuminate, finely pinnately veined with a prominent mid vein, glabrous, bright green and somewhat shining above, paler green beneath; racemes drooping, 3-S dm. long; pedicels very slender, 2-5 cm. long; sepals oval or oblong, obtuse, puberulent, 6-10 mm. long; petals bright yellow, oblong, obtuse, 2-3 cm. long; legume cylindric, drooping, terete, nearly black, glabrous, 6 dm. long or less, about 2 cm. thick, pulpy within around the flat horizontal seeds.
Type loc.lity: India.
Distribution: Planted nearly throughout the West Indies and continental tropical America, and locally naturalized. Native of tropical Asia.
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bibliographic citation
Nathaniel Lord Britton and Joseph Nelson Rose. 1928. (ROSALES); MIMOSACEAE. North American flora. vol 23(1). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Perennial, Trees, Woody throughout, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems or branches arching, spreading or decumbent, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves absent at flowering time, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules setiform, subulate or acicular, Stipules deciduous, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescence panicles, Inflorescence cauliferous, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence or flowers lax, declined or pendulous, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Bracteoles present, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Petals orange or yellow, Banner petal narrow or oblanceolate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Stamens 9-10, Fertile stamens 6-8, Stamens heteromorphic, graded in size, Stamens completely free, separate, Filaments glabrous, Filam ents S-shaped, Anthers opening by basal or terminal pores or slits, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit indehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit or valves persistent on stem, Fruit coriaceous or becoming woody, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds embedded in gummy or spongy pulp, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler
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USDA NRCS NPDC
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USDA PLANTS text

Cassia fistula

provided by wikipedia EN

Blossomed golden shower tree in Kerala
Blossomed golden shower tree

Cassia fistula, also known as golden shower,[3] purging cassia,[4] Indian laburnum,[5] Kani Konna,[6] or pudding-pipe tree,[7] is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae. The species is native to the Indian subcontinent and adjacent regions of Southeast Asia. It is the official state flower of Kerala state in India.[6] It is also a popular ornamental plant and is also used in herbal medicine.

Description

The golden shower tree is a medium-sized tree, growing to 10–20 m (33–66 ft) tall with fast growth. The leaves are deciduous, 15–60 cm (6–24 in) long, and pinnate with three to eight pairs of leaflets, each leaflet 7–21 cm (3–8 in) long and 4–9 cm (1+123+12 in) broad. The flowers are produced in pendulous racemes 20–40 cm (8–16 in) long, each flower 4–7 cm (1+582+34 in) diameter with five yellow petals of equal size and shape. The fruit is a legume, 30–60 cm (12–24 in) long and 1.5–2.5 cm (916–1 in) broad, with a pungent odor and containing several seeds. The tree has strong and very durable wood, and has been used to construct "Ehela Kanuwa", a site at Adam's Peak, Sri Lanka, which is made of C. fistula (ahala, ehela, or aehaela, ඇහැල in Sinhala [8]) heartwood. The golden shower tree is not a nitrogen fixer.[9]

Cultivation

Cassia fistula is widely grown as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. It blooms in late spring/early summer in hot, dry weather. Flowering is profuse, with trees being covered with yellow flowers, many times with almost no leaf being seen. It grows well in dry climates. Growth for this tree is best in full sun on well-drained soil; it is relatively drought-tolerant and slightly salt-tolerant. It will tolerate light brief frost, but can get damaged if the cold persists. It can be subject to mildew or leaf spot, especially during the second half of the growing season. The tree blooms better with pronounced differences between summer and winter temperatures.[10]

Pollinators and seed dispersal

Various species of bees and butterflies are known to be pollinators of C. fistula flowers, especially carpenter bees (Xylocopa sp.).[11] In 1911, Robert Scott Troup conducted an experiment to determine how the seeds of C. fistula are dispersed. He found that golden jackals feed on the fruits and help in seed dispersal.[12]

Uses

Food

In India, flowers of the golden shower tree are sometimes eaten by people. The leaves have also been used to supplement the diets of cattle, sheep, and goats fed with low-quality forages.[13]

Medical

In Ayurvedic medicine, the golden shower tree is known as aragvadha, meaning "disease killer". The fruit pulp is considered a purgative,[14][15] and self-medication or any use without medical supervision is strongly advised against in Ayurvedic texts. Though it has been used in herbalism for millennia, little research has been conducted in modern times, although it is an ingredient in some mass-produced herbal laxatives. When used as such, it is known as "cassia pods".[7]

In India, a cathartic made from the pulp is sometimes added to tobacco.[16]

A paste of the flowers is used as an ointment for pimples.

Culture

Cassia fistula is both the national tree and national flower of Thailand – in Thai ratchaphruek (Thai: ราชพฤกษ์) and the blossoms commonly referred to as dok khun (Thai: ดอกคูน).[17] Its yellow flowers symbolize Thai royalty. A 2006–2007 flower festival, the Royal Flora Ratchaphruek, was named after the tree. Cassia fistula is also featured on a 2003 joint Canadian-Thai design for a 48-cent stamp, part of a series featuring national emblems.[10]

The Indian laburnum is the state flower of Kerala. The flowers are of ritual importance in the Vishu festival of Kerala.[18] The tree has been depicted on a 20-rupee stamp. The tree is frequently cultivated in Buddhist temples in Sri Lanka where the Sinhala name is Ehela, ඇහැල.[19]

In Laos, its blooming flowers known locally as dok khoun are associated with the Lao New Year. People use the flowers as offerings at the temple and also hang them in their homes for the New Year in belief that the flowers will bring happiness and good luck to the households.[20]

The laburnum is the school tree of National Taiwan Normal University, thought to be because of the seed pods' similarity to the whips used by teachers in times past.[21]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) & IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group (2018). "Cassia fistula". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T136142327A136142329. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  3. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Cassia fistula". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
  4. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  5. ^ "Cassia fistula". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Early konna blooms in Kochi set off alarm bells". February 14, 2019.
  7. ^ a b U. S. Department of Agriculture, William Saunders; Catalogue of Economic Plants in the Collection of the U. S. Department of Agriculture; Washington D. C.; June 5, 1891
  8. ^ sinhala botany website
  9. ^ Datiles, Marianne Jennifer; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro. "Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)". Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International).
  10. ^ a b "Cassia Fistula (aburnum, Purging Fistula, Golden Shower, Amaltas)", Ayurveda - Herbs, 4 to 40, archived from the original on 2011-07-14, retrieved 2011-01-20
  11. ^ Murali, KS (1993) Differential reproductive success in Cassia fistula in different habitats—A case of pollinator limitations? In: Current Science (Bangalore), 65 (3). pp. 270-272.
  12. ^ Troup, R.S. (1911).Silviculture of Indian Trees. Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council. Oxford Clarendon Press
  13. ^ Heuzé V., Thiollet H., Tran G., Hassoun P., Lebas F., 2018. Golden tree (Cassia fistula). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/325
  14. ^ Pole, Sebastian (2012). Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practice. Singing Dragon. p. 129. ISBN 978-1848191136. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  15. ^ Bhagwan Dash, Vaidya (2002). Materia Medica Of Ayurveda. India: B. Jain. pp. 41–42. ISBN 9788170214939. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  16. ^ Hargreaves, Dorothy; Hargreaves, Bob (1970). Tropical Trees of the Pacific. Kailua, Hawaii: Hargreaves. p. 14.
  17. ^ "ASEAN National Flowers". Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Archived from the original on 20 January 2012.
  18. ^ "State Flower Golden shower". ENVIS Hub: Kerala. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  19. ^ "Botany Plant-names → Sinhala Plant names උද්භිද නම් → සිංහල නම්".
  20. ^ Lao NEWS on LNTV: When the golden shower trees, known as Dok Khoun in Laos blossom.17/4/2014
  21. ^ "School tree". NTNU University Archives. Retrieved 2022-11-14.

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Cassia fistula: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
Blossomed golden shower tree in Kerala Blossomed golden shower tree

Cassia fistula, also known as golden shower, purging cassia, Indian laburnum, Kani Konna, or pudding-pipe tree, is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae. The species is native to the Indian subcontinent and adjacent regions of Southeast Asia. It is the official state flower of Kerala state in India. It is also a popular ornamental plant and is also used in herbal medicine.

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