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Characiformes

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Characiformes /ˈkærəsɪfɔːrmz/ is an order of ray-finned fish, comprising the characins and their allies. Grouped in 18 recognized families, more than 2000 different species are described, including the well-known piranha and tetras.[1]

Taxonomy

The Characiformes form part of a series called the Otophysi within the superorder Ostariophysi. The Otophysi contain three other orders, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, and Gymnotiformes.[1] The Characiformes form a group known as the Characiphysi with the Siluriformes and Gymnotiformes.[2] The order Characiformes is the sister group to the orders Siluriformes and Gymnotiformes, though this has been debated in light of recent molecular evidence.[1]

Originally, the characins were all grouped within a single family, the Characidae. Since then, 18 different families have been separated out. However, classification varies somewhat, and the most recent (2011) study confirms the circumscribed Characidae as monophyletic.[3] Currently, 18 families, about 270 genera, and at least 1674 species are known.[3] The suborder Citharinoidei, which contains the families Distichodontidae and Citharinidae, is considered the sister group to the rest of the characins, suborder Characoidei.[2]

Evolution

The oldest characiform is Santanichthys of the early Cretaceous (Albian stage) of Brazil. While all extant species are of fresh water, this species was probably either brackish or marine. Many other fossils are also known.[1] The Characiformes likely first diversified during the Cretaceous period, though fossils are poorly known.[1] During the Cretaceous period, the rift between South America and Africa would be forming; this may explain the contrast in diversity between the two continents. Their low diversity in Africa may explain why some primitive fish families and the Cypriniformes coexist with them while they are absent in South America, where these fish may have been driven extinct.[2] The characiforms had not spread into Africa soon enough to also reach the land bridge between Africa and Asia.[2] The earliest they could have spread into Central America was the late Miocene.[2]

Phylogeny

Below is a phylogeny of living Characiformes based on Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2017[4] and Nelson, Grande & Wilson 2016.[5]

Characiformes Citharinoidei  

Distichodontidae Günther 1864 Distichodus maculatus.jpg

   

Citharinidae Günther 1864 Citharinus citharus.jpg

    Characoidei Crenuchoidea

Crenuchidae Günther 1864 sensu Froese & Pauly 2001

      Alestioidea  

Hepsetidae Hubbs 1939 Hepsetus odoe.jpg

   

Alestiidae Cockerell 1910 Hydrocynus vittatus The fishes of the Nile (Pl. XVII) (6961607491).jpg

    Erythrinoidea    

Tarumaniidae de Pinna et al. 2017

   

Erythrinidae Valenciennes 1847 Hoplias malabaricus2.jpg

         

Serrasalmidae Bleeker 1859 F de Castelnau-poissonsPl37 (Serrasalmus humeralis).jpg

     

Cynodontidae Eigenmann 1903 Hydrolycus scomberoides.jpg

   

Hemiodontidae Bleeker 1859 Hemiodus amazonum.jpg

         

Parodontidae Eigenmann 1910

       

Prochilodontidae Eigenmann 1909 Prochilodus lineatus d'Orbigny.jpg

     

Chilodontidae Eigenmann 1903

   

Curimatidae Gill 1858 Potamorhina latior (white background).jpg

       

Anostomidae Günther 1864 sensu Nelson 1994 Leporinus fasciatus2.jpg

            Characoidea    

Ctenoluciidae Schultz 1944

   

Lebiasinidae Gill 1889

       

Chalceidae Fowler 1958

       

Iguanodectidae Eigenmann 1909

   

Acestrorhynchidae Eigenmann 1912

         

Triportheidae Fowler 1940 Triportheus angulatus (white background).jpg

     

Bryconidae Eigenmann 1912 Brycon amazonicus de Castelnau.jpg

   

Gasteropelecidae Bleeker 1859 Salminus hilarii Castelnau.jpg

       

Characidae Latreille 1825 sensu Buckup 1998 Exodon paradoxus Castelnau.jpg

               

Description

Characins possess a Weberian apparatus, a series of bony parts connecting the swim bladder and inner ear.[1] Superficially, the Characiformes somewhat resemble their relatives of the order Cypriniformes, but have a small, fleshy adipose fin between the dorsal fin and tail. Most species have teeth within the mouth, since they are often carnivorous. The body is almost always covered in well-defined scales. The mouth is also usually not truly protractile.[6]

The largest characins are Hydrocynus goliath and Salminus franciscanus and Hoplias aimara,[7] both of which are up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft). The smallest in size is about 1.7 cm (0.67 in) in the Bolivian pygmy blue characin, Xenurobrycon polyancistrus.[8] Many members are under 3 cm (1.2 in).[1]

Distribution and habitat

Characins are most diverse in the Neotropics, where they are found in lakes and rivers throughout most of South and Central America. The red-bellied piranha, a member of the family Serrasalmidae within the Characiformes, is endemic to the Neotropical realm. At least 209 species of characins are found in Africa, including the distichodontids, citharinids, alestiids, and hepsetids. The rest of the characins originate from the Americas.[1]

Relationship to humans

A few characins become quite large, and are important as food or game.[1] Most, however, are small shoaling fish. Many species known as tetras are popular in aquaria due to their bright colors, general hardiness, and tolerance towards other fish in community tanks.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.; Buckup P.A.: "Relationships of the Characidiinae and phylogeny of characiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)", Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M. Lucena, eds. (Porto Alegre: Edipucr) 1998:123-144.
  2. ^ a b c d e Briggs, John C. (2005). "The biogeography of otophysan fishes (Ostariophysi: Otophysi): a new appraisal" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography. 32 (2): 287–294. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01170.x.
  3. ^ a b Claudio Oliveira, Gleisy S Avelino, Kelly T Abe, Tatiane C Mariguela, Ricardo C Benine, Guillermo Ortí, Richard P Vari and Ricardo M Corrêa e Castro,"Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:275).
  4. ^ Betancur-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Edward O. Wiley; Gloria Arratia; Arturo Acero; Nicolas Bailly; Masaki Miya; Guillaume Lecointre; Guillermo Ortí (2017). "Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes". BMC Evolutionary Biology (4 ed.). 17 (162): 162. doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0958-3. PMC 5501477. PMID 28683774.
  5. ^ Nelson, Joseph S.; Terry C. Grande; Mark V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118342336.
  6. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). "Characiformes" in FishBase. February 2014 version.
  7. ^ http://www.fishing-worldrecords.com/scientificname/Salminus%20franciscanus/show
  8. ^ Weitzman, S.H.; Vari, R.P. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 101–105. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
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Characiformes: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Characiformes /ˈkærəsɪfɔːrmiːz/ is an order of ray-finned fish, comprising the characins and their allies. Grouped in 18 recognized families, more than 2000 different species are described, including the well-known piranha and tetras.

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Characiformes

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Les Characiformes sont un ordre de poissons Actinoptérygiens, comprenant les characins et leurs semblables. Ils sont quelques milliers d'espèces différentes y compris les fameux piranhas et Tétras.

Description et caractéristiques

On trouve les characins dans les lacs tropicaux et rivières de la plupart des pays d'Amérique du Sud, d'Amérique centrale, et d'Afrique centrale.

La majorité de ces poissons sont carnivores, et les plus gros ont développé des dentitions parfois impressionnantes (avec une mâchoire supérieure rarement protractile et souvent des dents pharyngales). Ils sont pourvus d'une nageoire adipeuse, d'une nageoire pelvienne, et généralement d'écailles (sauf quelques rares espèces sud-américaines), mais pas de barbillons. La ligne latérale est souvent courbée, parfois discontinue[1].

À l'origine, ces poissons étaient regroupés en une seule famille, les Characidae, qu'on avait incluse dans les Cypriniformes. Désormais ils sont répartis en quelque 15 familles différentes.

Familles

Selon FishBase (14 juillet 2014)[1] :

Au moins deux familles éteintes :

Références taxinomiques

Notes et références

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wikipedia FR

Characiformes: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Les Characiformes sont un ordre de poissons Actinoptérygiens, comprenant les characins et leurs semblables. Ils sont quelques milliers d'espèces différentes y compris les fameux piranhas et Tétras.

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original
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카라신목

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

카라신목(Characiformes) 또는 잉어부치목카라신 등을 포함하고 있는 조기어류 의 하나이다. 잘 알려진 피라냐테트라 등을 포함하여 수 천여 종이 속해 있다.[1]

하위 과

계통 분류

2016년 현재, 계통 분류는 다음과 같다.[2]

조기어류

다기어목

     

철갑상어목

신기어류 전골어류

아이아목

   

레피소스테우스목

    진골어류 당멸치상목

당멸치목

     

뱀장어목

     

여을멸목

   

밑보리멸목

        Osteoglossocephalai 골설어상목

히오돈목

   

골설어목

    Clupeocephala Otomorpha  

청어목

     

민머리치목

골표류

압치목

     

잉어목

     

카라신목

     

김노투스목

   

메기목

               

신진골어류

             

다음은 올리베이라(Oliveira) 등의 연구에 기초한 카라신목의 계통 분류이다.[3]

카라신목 카라신아목                

카라신과

     

트리포르테우스과

     

브리콘과 (Bryconinae, Salmininae)

   

민물자귀어과

         

이구아노덱테스과+브리콘과

   

아케스트로린쿠스과

       

칼케우스과

       

레비아시나과

   

크테놀루키우스과

                아노스토무스상과    

쿠리마타과

   

킬로돈과

   

프로킬로돈과

     

아노스토무스과

       

헤미오두스과

   

세라살무스과

         

키노돈과

     

파로돈과

     

에리트리누스과

         

알레스테스과

   

헵세투스과

       

크레누쿠스과

        키타리누스아목  

키타리누스과

   

디스티코두스과

     

각주

  1. Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). 《Fishes of the World》. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0471250317.
  2. R. Betancur-R., E. Wiley, N. Bailly, A. Acero, M. Miya, G. Lecointre, G. Ortí: Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes – Version 4 (2016)
  3. Claudio Oliveira et al.: Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:275 doi 10.1186/1471-2148-11-275
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