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Euptychiina

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The butterfly subtribe Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a diverse group within the tribe Satyrini, occurring throughout Central and South America, in addition to a few species known from North America. Euptychiina is a predominantly lowland group, with the exception of one Asian taxon Palaeonympha opalina Butler, 1871 and the Andean genus Forsterinaria Gray, 1973. The taxon was erected by Lee Denmar Miller.[1][2]

Euptychiina

Despite its members being common, this subtribe has been a challenging subject for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies for many years because of their dull coloration, intraspecific variation, lack of clear morphological characters, and morphological homogeneity.[2] However, with the exception of pioneering work by W. Forster[3] and L. D. Miller,[4] the group received little attention from butterfly researchers until recently due to their typically dull brownish coloration. Currently, 50 genera and over 400 described species are recognized within this subtribe,[5][6] but the group is estimated to contain over 500 species in 70 genera.[6] The current classification of Euptychiina is based on the Lamas checklist,[7] who retained and reorganized many of the genera erected by Forster. Forster described 33 euptychiine genera that are now widely accepted, but since he erected these genera without testing monophyly and synapomorphies, many of his genera have been recovered as polyphyletic or paraphyletic in recent molecular phylogenetic studies.[1][8]

Phylogeny showing relationships of major euptychiine genera[8]

History of classification

A. Butler[9] was probably the first to propose a systematic classification for many euptychiine taxa, excluding species now in the "Taygetis clade". In his monograph of Euptychia (then used as a catch-all genus to include most euptychiine species), Butler divided the genus into seven groups (Division I to VII). Subsequently, Butler proposed an updated classification for the group and recognized 27 "species groups" within Euptychia sensu Butler (1867).[10] G. Weymer recognized 29 "species group" within Euptychia sensu Butler, in addition to treating Taygetis and Amphidecta in his monograph of Satyridae in the "Macrolepidoptera of the American Faunistic region" by A. Seitz.[11] Based on Weymer (1911)'s classification, Forster (1964) introduced 33 euptychiine genera and his classification is largely retained in Lamas (2004), a work considered as a vital foundation regarding Neotropical butterfly classification.[3][7] The recent years have seen an explosion of interest in euptychiine systematics, resulting in many changes in generic classification of the group as well as improvement in our understanding of its species diversity.[6][12] Although the subtribal name was first introduced by L. D. Miller when he treated Euptychiina as a tribal level taxon "Euptychiini",[4] the genus Euptychia Hübner, 1818 was historically used to place many euptychiine species now no longer classified in that genus, perhaps explaining why the generic name Euptychia was used in a much broader sense to include many other euptychiine species. Consequently, Forster included this name "Euptychia" as part of new generic names he described, a trend also followed when the new generic name Atlanteuptychia was introduced for Euptychia ernestina Weymer, 1911.[13] However, other recently described euptychiine genera do not follow this trend (references above).

Biology

There exist detailed early stage biology (i.e. complete life cycle documented) information for 30 euptychiine species.[14][15][16][17][18][19] Larva of euptychiine species often lack body scoli and possessing short head scoli and caudal filaments, but there exist some variation.[19] Hostplant records are known for approximately 100 species, those records are mainly grass and bamboo species,[20] although the genus Euptychia is known to feed on mosses and lycopsids.[21][22][23]

Euptychia westwoodi mating on its host plant (Selaginella species) in western Ecuador.
Early stage biology (egg, larva, pupa and adult) of Splendeuptychia quadrina

Generic classification and species

The following genera and species belong to subtribe Euptychina.[24]

References

  1. ^ a b Peña, C.; Nylin, S.; Freitas, A. V. L.; Wahlberg, N. (2010). "Biogeographic history of the butterfly subtribe Euptychiina (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)". Zoologica Scripta. 39 (3): 243–258. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00421.x.
  2. ^ a b Peña, C.; Lamas, G. (2005). "Revision of the butterfly genus Forsterinaria Gray, 1973 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)". Revista Peruana de Biología. 12 (1): 5–48.
  3. ^ a b Forster, W. (1964). "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna Boliviens XIX. Lepidoptera III. Satyridae". Veröffentlichungen der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. 8: 51–188.
  4. ^ a b Miller, L. D. (1968). "The higher classification, phylogeny and zoogeography of the Satyridae (Lepidoptera)". Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. 24: [6] + iii + 174 pp.
  5. ^ Nakahara, Shinichi; Lamas, Gerardo; Tyler, Stephanie; Marín, Mario Alejandro; Huertas, Blanca; Willmott, Keith R.; Mielke, Olaf H. H.; Espeland, Marianne (2019). "A revision of the new genus Amiga Nakahara, Willmott & Espeland, gen. N., described for Papilio arnaca Fabricius, 1776 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)". ZooKeys (821): 85–152. doi:10.3897/zookeys.821.31782. PMC 6367311. PMID 30740021.
  6. ^ a b c Nakahara, S.; Willmott, K. R.; Mielke, O. H. H.; Schwartz, J.; Zacca, T.; Espeland, M.; Lamas, G. (2018). "Seven new taxa from the butterfly subtribe Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) with revisional notes on Harjesia Forster, 1964 and Pseudeuptychia Forster, 1964". Insecta Mundi (639): 1–38.
  7. ^ a b Lamas, G. (2004). "Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea – Papilionoidea". In Heppner, J. B. (ed.). Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Vol. 5A. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers. pp. 430 pp.
  8. ^ a b Espeland, Marianne; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Barbosa, Eduardo P.; Casagrande, Mirna M.; Huertas, Blanca; Lamas, Gerardo; Marín, Mario A.; Mielke, Olaf H.H.; Miller, Jacqueline Y.; Nakahara, Shinichi; Tan, Denise; Warren, Andrew D.; Zacca, Thamara; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Freitas, André V.L.; Willmott, Keith R. (2019). "Four hundred shades of brown: Higher level phylogeny of the problematic Euptychiina (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) based on hybrid enrichment data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 131: 116–124. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.10.039. PMID 30423438.
  9. ^ Butler, A. G. (1867). "A monograph of the genus Euptychia, a numerous race of butterflies belonging to the family Satyridae; with descriptions of sixty species new to science, and notes to their affinities". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1866 (3): 484–504.
  10. ^ Butler, A. G. (1877). "On new species of the genus Euptychia, with a tabular view of those hitherto recorded". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 13 (67): 116–128. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1877.tb02375.x.
  11. ^ Weymer, G. 1910-1911. 4. Familie: Satyridae. In: Seitz, A. (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Stuttgart, A. Kernen. 5: 185-225.
  12. ^ Nakahara, S.; Barbosa, E. P.; Freitas, A V L. (2017). "A Potentially Endangered New Species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from the Atlantic Coastal Forest of Brazil". Neotropical Entomology. 46 (3): 302–309. doi:10.1007/s13744-016-0466-y. PMID 28063143. S2CID 28364100.
  13. ^ Freitas, André V. L.; Barbosa, Eduardo P.; Santos, Jessie P.; Mielke, Olaf H. H. (2013). "A new genus, Atlanteuptychia gen. Nov., for Euptychia ernestina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae)". Zoologia (Curitiba). 30 (6): 661–668. doi:10.1590/S1984-46702013005000005.
  14. ^ "Systematics of Euptychiina".
  15. ^ Freitas, A. V. L., Carreira, J. Y. O., Santos, J. P., Barbosa, E. P. 2016. Immature stages and natural history of two species of Forsterinaria from southeastern Brazil (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 26(1): 13-18.
  16. ^ Freitas, A. V. L., Barbosa, E. P., Marin, M. A. 2016. Immature stages and natural history of the neotropical satyrine Pareuptychia ocirrhoe interjecta (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 70(4): 271-276.
  17. ^ Freitas, A. V. L. 2017. Immature stages of the Neotropical satyrine Taygetis acuta (Nymphalidae: Euptychiina). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 27: 1-5.
  18. ^ Freitas, A. V. L., Rosa, A. H. B., Carreira, J. Y. O., Gueratto, P. Y., Santos J. P., Tacioli A. 2018. Immature stages of two Moneuptychia from southeastern Brazil (Nymphalidae: Euptychiina). Tropical Lepidoptera Research 28: 100-105.
  19. ^ a b See, J., Nakahara, S., Gallice, G. 2018 Immature stages of Splendeuptychia quadrina (Butler, 1869) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 28 (2): 49–53.
  20. ^ Beccaloni, G. W., Viloria, A. L., Hall, S. K., Robinson, G. S. 2008. Catalogue of the Hostplants of the Neotropical Butterflies / Catálogo de las Plantas Huésped de las Mariposas Neotropicales. m3m-Monografías Tercer Milenio, Volume 8. Zaragoza, Spain: Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (SEA)/Red Iberoamericana de Biogeografía y Entomología Sistemática (RIBES)/Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo (CYTED)/Natural History Museum, London, U. K. (NHM)/Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Venezuela (IVIC). 1-536 pp.
  21. ^ Singer, M. C., Ehrlich, P. R., Gilbert, L. E. 1971. Butterfly feeding on lycopsid. Science, 172: 1341-1342.
  22. ^ DeVries, P. J. 1986. Hostplant records and natural history notes on Costa Rican butterflies (Papilionidae, Pieridae & Nymphalidae). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, 24: 290‑333.
  23. ^ Brévignon, C. 2008. Inventaire des Satyrinae de Guyane Française (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), pp. 62-94. In: Lacomme, D., Manil, L. (Eds.),Lépidoptères de Guyane, Tome 3, Rhopalocères 2. Paris, Lepidopteristes de France.
  24. ^ Marianne Espeland; Shinichi Nakahara; Thamara Zacca; Eduardo P. Barbosa; Blanca Huertas; et al. (2023). "Combining target enrichment and Sanger sequencing data to clarify the systematics of the diverse Neotropical butterfly subtribe Euptychiina (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)". Systematic Entomology: 1–73. doi:10.1111/syen.12590. ISSN 1365-3113. S2CID 258075865.
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Euptychiina: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The butterfly subtribe Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a diverse group within the tribe Satyrini, occurring throughout Central and South America, in addition to a few species known from North America. Euptychiina is a predominantly lowland group, with the exception of one Asian taxon Palaeonympha opalina Butler, 1871 and the Andean genus Forsterinaria Gray, 1973. The taxon was erected by Lee Denmar Miller.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN