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Amaranthus pumilus is a globally and federally threatened species (Global Heritage Status Rank G2; National Heritage Status Rank N2) originally restricted to dunes and barrier island beaches along the Atlantic Ocean from southern Massachusetts to South Carolina. It has been eliminated from two-thirds of its former range, being last reported from Massachusetts in 1849, from Rhode Island in 1856, from New Jersey in 1913, and from Virginia in 1972 (S. Ramsey et al. 2000). As of fall 2003, extant populations are known only from Long Island, New York, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, and South Carolia. Many threats exist, including construction of sea walls and dune fencing, development, heavy recreational use, and off-road vehicle traffic. It is difficult to afford protection because of the dynamic nature of the habitat and the fugitive nature of the biology of the species. "Fugitive" refers to the fact that the species does not necessarily occur throughout its potential range at any given time (S. E. Clemants 1992).

Amaranthus pumilus is in the Center for Plant Conservation’s National Collection of Endangered Plants.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 4: 414, 428, 430 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Plants annual, glabrous. Stems prostrate to ascending (often forming mats), red, much-branched, 0.1-0.4(-0.5) m, fleshy. Leaves clustered near tips of branches; petiole 5-10 mm; blade orbiculate, broadly ovate or obovate, 1-1.5 cm × 1-1.5 cm, fleshy, base broadly cuneate to tapering, margin entire, plane or slightly undulate, apex broadly rounded to obtuse, mucronate. Inflorescences dense axillary glomerules, green. Bracts of pistillate flowers ovate or elliptic, 1.2-2 mm, 1/2 as long as tepals. Pistillate flowers: tepals 5, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, slightly unequal, 2.5-4 mm, margins entire, apex obtuse; style branches erect; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers intermixed with pistillate; tepals 5; stamens 5. Utricles ovoid, 4-6 mm, exceeding tepals, fleshy, smooth or slightly rugose, longitudinally wrinkled on drying, indehiscent. Seeds dark reddish brown, lenticular, 2.5 mm diam., glossy.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 414, 428, 430 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Conn., Del., Md., Mass., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Pa., R.I., S.C., Va.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 414, 428, 430 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering summer-fall.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 414, 428, 430 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Habitat

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Maritime sand dunes, beaches, mostly on foredunes and at high tide level; of conservation concern; 0-10m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 4: 414, 428, 430 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Amaranthus pumilus Raf. Med. Repos. II. 5: 360. 1808
Euxolus pumilus Chapm. Fl. S. U. S. 381. 1860.
Stems stout, fleshy, prostrate or ascending, 4-30 cm. long; leaves mostly clustered near the ends of the branches, the petioles stout, 2-1 1 mm. long, the blades obovate to suborbicular, 8-20 mm. long, rounded or emarginate at the apex, rounded to attenuate at the base and decurrent, glabrous, fleshy, prominently veined, the veins often purple; flowers monoecious, in dense axillary clusters; bracts lanceolate, acutish, half as long as the calyx or shorter; sepals of the pistillate flowers 5, narrowly oblong, obtuse, 3-4 mm. long, those of the staminate flowers similar but smaller; stamens 5; style-branches 3; utricle fleshy, indehiscent, oval in outline, about 5 mm. long, faintly 5-ribbed, rugulose; seed 2-2.5 mm. long, black and shining.
Type locality: On an island at Egg Harbor, New Jersey. Distribution: On sea beaches, Rhode Island to North Carolina.
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bibliographic citation
Paul Carpenter Standley. 1917. (CHENOPODIALES); AMARANTHACEAE. North American flora. vol 21(2). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Amaranthus pumilus

provided by wikipedia EN

Amaranthus pumilus, the seaside amaranth or seabeach amaranth, is a species of amaranth. This annual plant is now a threatened species, although it was formerly scattered along the eastern coast of the United States, its native range.

History

The seaside amaranth once ranged widely from South Carolina to Massachusetts. It was first identified in New Jersey, but disappeared in that state by 1913. It is now gone from two thirds of its original range.[1] This plant has reappeared on some areas where it was formerly extirpated by habitat loss and recreational activities.

Description

The plant consists of many low and prostrate stems with fleshy leaves. Larger plants with hundreds of stems may cover an area of about a meter. Yellow flowers are obscure, but many seeds are produced in July. The lengthy viability of these seeds may account for the reappearance of Amaranthus pumilus in places where it had formerly vanished.

Habitat

This plant is found on sandy beaches, especially on barrier islands. It flourishes at the base of dunes above the high water mark. Although the seaside amaranth is found in the neighborhood of other beach plants, it is intolerant of all but American sea rocket (Cakile edentula). The plant is important in the sandy beach ecosystem, accumulating sand around itself to form dunes.[2]

Conservation status in the United States

The plant was listed as a threatened species of the United States in 1993.[1] There are perhaps 50 populations remaining.[1] It is listed as a special concern and believed extirpated in Connecticut,[3] as threatened in North Carolina, and as endangered in Maryland, New Jersey, New York (state), and Rhode Island.[4] Threats include disturbance of its beach habitat through development, construction of seawalls, off-road vehicle activity, and other forces.[1] Along the North Carolina Coast the deposits of tanker oil left on the beach from the ships torpedoed during both world wars is the main cause for the demise of the Sea Beach Amaranth.

References

  1. ^ a b c d The Nature Conservancy
  2. ^ "Center for Plant Conservation". Archived from the original on 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
  3. ^ "Connecticut's Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species 2015". State of Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Bureau of Natural Resources. Retrieved 19 January 2018. (Note: This list is newer than the one used by plants.usda.gov and is more up-to-date.)
  4. ^ "Plants Profile for Amaranthus pumilus (seaside amaranth)". plants.usda.gov. Retrieved 25 January 2018.

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Amaranthus pumilus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Amaranthus pumilus, the seaside amaranth or seabeach amaranth, is a species of amaranth. This annual plant is now a threatened species, although it was formerly scattered along the eastern coast of the United States, its native range.

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