dcsimg
Image of Botryllus Gaertner 1774
Creatures » » Animals » » Tunicates » » Styelidae »

Star Ascidian

Botryllus schlosseri (Pallas 1766)

Biology

provided by Arkive
All sea-squirts filter suspended particles from the water. They maintain a current that passes through their body by beating tiny hair-like structures known as 'cilia'; the water enters through an opening called the 'inhalant siphon', and passes through the pharynx, where plankton and detritus become trapped in mucus and are passed to the stomach. The water then passes out through a second opening called the 'exhalent siphon'. In the star ascidian, the exhalent siphons of all the members of the colony open into a shared chamber, known as the cloaca, water then passes out of a shared exhalent siphon at the centre of the colony (3). In the star ascidian, the zooids are hermaphroditic (3); after fertilisation, eggs are retained until the tadpole larvae have formed (2). The larvae are then released through the exhalent siphon, and live in the water column for about 36 hours, before settling and forming new colonies (2). Asexual reproduction can also take place through budding (3). Colonies may live for up to one and a half years (3). Star ascidians are predated upon by cowries (members of the genus Trivia), which are gastropod molluscs; cowries also lay their eggs into holes made in the star-ascidian test (3).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Conservation

provided by Arkive
No conservation action has been targeted at this species.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Description

provided by Arkive
The star ascidian is a colonial sea-squirt (2). The individual members of the colony (known as zooids) are embedded in a jelly-like coating called a 'test' in groups of 3-12 around a common opening; this arrangement gives rise to the star-like patterns referred to by the common name (3). Sea-squirts earn their common name because they expel a jet of water when disturbed (3). They are also known as 'tunicates' due to the tunic-like test of many species. The colour of colonies is variable, but includes blue, brown and yellow; furthermore the colour of the zooids often contrasts with that of the test (3). Sea-squirts belong to the same phylum as humans, the 'chordates'. The free-swimming larval stage is a 'tadpole larva', which possesses a stiff chord known as a 'notochord' as well as a nerve chord, which pass along the flexible tail; the possession of both a notochord and a nerve chord at some point in the lifecycle of an animal is a crucial defining characteristic shared by all chordates (3).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Habitat

provided by Arkive
Typically occurs on the lower shore and in shallow depths, but has been recorded at depths of several hundred meters (2). It seems to fare particularly well in sheltered sites, such as docks, and grows on a wide range of stable substrates including rock, algae and artificial surfaces (2).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Range

provided by Arkive
Very common and widespread around the coasts of Britain. It also occurs around Ireland and in mainland Europe from the Faeroe Islands and Norway, reaching as far south as the Mediterranean. It is also known from the western Atlantic along parts of the coast of North America, where it is thought to have been introduced on the hulls of ships (2).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Status

provided by Arkive
Common and widespread (3).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Threats

provided by Arkive
Not currently threatened.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Brief Summary

provided by Ecomare
As the name says, the star ascidian is star-shaped. Each point of the star is an animal and the center of the star is their joint waste hole. Star ascidians are the most common colony-forming sea squirts present in the Netherlands. They look like sturdy, smooth, cartilaginous crust, covered with star-shaped figures. In the delta region, there are more species of colony-forming sea squirts. They were carried here in the 1970s-1990s by ships and when mussel and oyster fishermen transported shellfish.
license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Copyright Ecomare
provider
Ecomare
original
visit source
partner site
Ecomare

Asexual Reproduction

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Breeding Season

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Care of Adults

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Egg Characteristics

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Fertilization and Cleavage

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Later Stages of Development and Metamorphosis

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Living Material

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine

References

  • Berrill, N. J., . Culture methods for ascidians. In: Culture Methods for Invertebrate Animals, edit. by Galtsoff et al., Comstock, Ithaca, pp. -.
  • Berrill, N. J., a. The development of the bud in Botryllus. Biol. Bull., : -.
  • Berrill, N. J., b. Size and morphogenesis in the bud of Botryllus. Biol. Bull., : -.
  • Grave, C., . Notes on the culture of eight species of ascidians. In: Culture Methods for Invertebrate Animals, edit. by Galtsoff et al., Comstock, Ithaca, pp. -.
  • Grave, C., and P. A. Nichol, . Studies of larval life and metamorphosis in Ascidia nigra and species of Polyandrocarpa. Pap. Tortugas Lab., : -. (Carnegie Inst., Wash., Publ. no. .).
  • Grave, C., and G. Riley, . Development of the sense organs of the larva of Botryllus schlosseri. J. Morph., : -.
  • Grave, C., and H. Woodbridge, . Botryllus schlosseri (Pallas): The behavior and morphology of the free-swimming larva. J. Morph., : -.
  • Herdman E. C., . Botryllus. Mem. Liverpool Mar. Biol. Comm., : -.
  • Oka, H., and H. Watanabe, . Vascular budding, a new type of budding in Botryllus. Biol. Bull., : -.
  • Pizon, A., . Histoire de la blastogenese chez les Botryllides. Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., ser. , : -.
  • Watterson R. L., . Asexual reproduction in the colonial tunicate, Botryllus schlosseri ( Pallas ) Savigny, with special reference to the developmental history of intersiphonal bands of pigment cells. Biol. Bull., : -.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Methods of Observation

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Preparation of Cultures

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Procuring Gametes

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Rate of Development

provided by Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species
Woods Hole, Maine
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley
bibliographic citation
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley (1971). Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition)
author
Costello, D.P.
author
C. Henley

Botryllus schlosseri

provided by wikipedia EN

Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial ascidian tunicate. It is commonly known as the star tunicate,[2] but it also has several other common names, including star ascidian and golden star tunicate.[3] Colonies grow on slow-moving, submerged objects, plants, and animals in nearshore saltwater environments.

Description

Individual zooids may grow to 3 millimetres (0.12 in) in size, with colonies reaching 50 millimetres (2.0 in) long .[4]

 src=
Tunicate colonies of Didemnum (left) and Botryllus schlosseri (right) overgrowing individuals of the tunicate Styela clava

This species can be distinguished from Botrylloides sp. by the pattern of zooid growth. B. schlosseri zooids emanate from a center in the manner of the arms of a star. Also, there usually are fewer zooids per cluster (5–8 in B. schlosseri and 10 or more in Botrylloides). There are many colors in which this species can be found, ranging from orange, blue and grey. A colony can be easily be separated from the main body to form an independent colony usually referred to as a subclone. Two colonies may also fuse together if they share common alleles for historecognition.[5]

Distribution

The native range of Botryllus schlosseri is the north eastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea.[1] Its range has spread over the last 100 years to a nearly worldwide extent. Ranging in the western Atlantic Ocean from the Bay of Fundy to North Carolina, it is regarded as an invasive species and is "the most common colonial tunicate in North America."[6]

Biology

Botryllus schlosseri is used as a model organism. Clones have been maintained in continuous laboratory culture for several decades, with new adults developing from buds that form from the body wall of existing adults. Under typical culture conditions, asexual reproduction occurs on an approximately two week cycle, during which a new bud will grow and begin to actively feed, while the adult it emerged from regresses and is eventually re-absorbed.[7][8]

When sexually productive, these Botryllus are known to produce,"yellowish-white or pale orange tadpole larva" exhibiting an oval outline.[9]

Colonial tunicates are the only chordates that are able to reproduce both sexually and asexually.[10][11][12] B. schlosseri is a sequential (protogynous) hermaphrodite, and in a colony, eggs are ovulated about two days before the peak of sperm emission.[13] Thus self-fertilization is avoided, and cross-fertilization is favored. Although avoided, self-fertilization is still possible in B. schlosseri. Self-fertilized eggs develop with a substantially higher frequency of anomalies during cleavage than cross-fertilized eggs (23.1% vs. 1.6%).[13] Also a significantly lower percentage of larvae derived from self-fertilized eggs metamorphose (51.5% vs 87.2%), and the growth of the colonies derived from their metamorphosis is significantly slower. These observations suggest that self-fertilization leads to inbreeding depression associated with developmental deficits likely arising from expression of deleterious recessive mutations.[14]

Genome

The genome has been sequenced.[15] It is 580 megabases in length organised into 16 chromosomes. It contains nearly 14,000 intron containing predicted genes and 13,500 intron-less predicted genes. The data also confirmed that the Tunicata are the closest invertebrate relative of humans.[16]

References

  1. ^ a b c Claude Monniot (2009). "Botryllus schlosseri (Pallas, 1766)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
  2. ^ "Star Tunicate (Botryllus schlosseri)". Slater Museum of Natural History.
  3. ^ "Star Ascidian (Botryllus schlosseri)". WhatsThatFish.
  4. ^ M. J. de Kluijver & S. S. Ingalsuo. "Botryllus schlosseri". Macrobenthos of the North Sea: Tunicata. Universiteit van Amsterdam. Archived from the original on September 1, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
  5. ^ Irving L. Weissman, Yasunori Saito & Baruch Rinkevich (1990). "Allorecognition histocompatibility in a protochordate species: is the relationship to MHC somatic or structural?". Immunological Reviews. 113: 227–241. doi:10.1111/j.1600-065X.1990.tb00043.x. PMID 2180808. S2CID 43085720.
  6. ^ Andrew J. Martinez & Candace Storm Martinez (2003). Marine Life of the North Atlantic: Canada to New England. Aqua Quest Publications. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-881652-32-8.
  7. ^ Manni, L.; Zaniolo, G.; Cima, F.; Burighel, P.; Ballarin, L. (1 February 2007). "Botryllus schlosseri: A model ascidian for the study of asexual reproduction". Developmental Dynamics. 236 (2): 335–352. doi:10.1002/dvdy.21037. PMID 17191252. S2CID 5955920.
  8. ^ Lauzon, Robert J.; Brown, Christina; Kerr, Louie; Tiozzo, Stefano (February 2013). "Phagocyte dynamics in a highly regenerative urochordate: Insights into development and host defense". Developmental Biology. 374 (2): 357–373. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.11.006. PMID 23174529.
  9. ^ Heather C. Boyd; Weissman, I. L.; Saito, Y. (1990). "Morphologic and genetic verification that Monterey Botryllus and Woods Hole Botryllus are the same species". The Biological Bulletin. 178 (3): 239–250. doi:10.2307/1541825. JSTOR 1541825. PMID 29314942.
  10. ^ Stem cells : from hydra to man. Bosch, Thomas C. G. Dordrecht: Springer. 2008. ISBN 9781402082740. OCLC 233972733.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  11. ^ Kürn, Ulrich; Rendulic, Snjezana; Tiozzo, Stefano; Lauzon, Robert J. (August 2011). "Asexual Propagation and Regeneration in Colonial Ascidians". The Biological Bulletin. 221 (1): 43–61. doi:10.1086/BBLv221n1p43. ISSN 0006-3185. PMID 21876110. S2CID 37526690.
  12. ^ Ricci, Lorenzo; Salmon, Bastien; Olivier, Caroline; Andreoni-Pham, Rita; Chaurasia, Ankita; Alié, Alexandre; Tiozzo, Stefano (2022). "The Onset of Whole-Body Regeneration in Botryllus schlosseri: Morphological and Molecular Characterization". Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 10. doi:10.3389/fcell.2022.843775. ISSN 2296-634X.
  13. ^ a b Gasparini F, Manni L, Cima F, Zaniolo G, Burighel P, Caicci F, Franchi N, Schiavon F, Rigon F, Campagna D, Ballarin L (July 2014). "Sexual and asexual reproduction in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri". Genesis. 53 (1): 105–20. doi:10.1002/dvg.22802. PMID 25044771. S2CID 205772576.
  14. ^ Bernstein, H; Hopf, FA; Michod, RE (1987). The molecular basis of the evolution of sex. Adv Genet. Advances in Genetics. Vol. 24. pp. 323–70. doi:10.1016/S0065-2660(08)60012-7. ISBN 9780120176243. PMID 3324702.
  15. ^ Voskoboynik A, Neff NF, Sahoo D, Newman AM, Pushkarev D, Koh W, Passarelli B, Fan HC, Mantalas GL, Palmeri KJ, Ishizuka KJ, Gissi C, Griggio F, Ben-Shlomo R, Corey DM, Penland L, White RA, Weissman IL, Quake SR (2013) The genome sequence of the colonial chordate, Botryllus schlosseri. Elife 2:e00569. doi:10.7554/eLife.00569
  16. ^ Delsuc, Frédéric; Brinkmann, Henner; Chourrout, Daniel; Philippe, Hervé (February 2006). "Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates" (PDF). Nature. 439 (7079): 965–968. Bibcode:2006Natur.439..965D. doi:10.1038/nature04336. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 16495997. S2CID 4382758.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Botryllus schlosseri: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial ascidian tunicate. It is commonly known as the star tunicate, but it also has several other common names, including star ascidian and golden star tunicate. Colonies grow on slow-moving, submerged objects, plants, and animals in nearshore saltwater environments.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Diet

provided by World Register of Marine Species
plankton feeder
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Millar, R. H. (1955). On a collection of ascidians from South Africa. <em>Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.</em> 125(1): 169-221. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Castro, K.; Giachetti, C.; Battini, N.; Bortolus, A.; Schwindt, E. (2020). Cleaning by beaching: introducing a new alternative for hull biofouling management in Argentina. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 63-80. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29. Canning-Clode, J.; Fofonoff, P.; McCann, L.; Carlton, J.; Ruiz, G. (2013). Marine invasions on a subtropical island: fouling studies and new records in a recent marina on Madeira Island (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(3): 261-270. Canning-Clode, J.; Fofonoff, P.; McCann, L.; Carlton, J.; Ruiz, G. (2013). Marine invasions on a subtropical island: fouling studies and new records in a recent marina on Madeira Island (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(3): 261-270. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
semi-cosmopolitan
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Millar, R. H. (1955). On a collection of ascidians from South Africa. <em>Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.</em> 125(1): 169-221. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Castro, K.; Giachetti, C.; Battini, N.; Bortolus, A.; Schwindt, E. (2020). Cleaning by beaching: introducing a new alternative for hull biofouling management in Argentina. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 63-80. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29. Canning-Clode, J.; Fofonoff, P.; McCann, L.; Carlton, J.; Ruiz, G. (2013). Marine invasions on a subtropical island: fouling studies and new records in a recent marina on Madeira Island (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(3): 261-270. Canning-Clode, J.; Fofonoff, P.; McCann, L.; Carlton, J.; Ruiz, G. (2013). Marine invasions on a subtropical island: fouling studies and new records in a recent marina on Madeira Island (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(3): 261-270. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Bay of Fundy to North Carolina
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Millar, R. H. (1955). On a collection of ascidians from South Africa. <em>Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.</em> 125(1): 169-221. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Castro, K.; Giachetti, C.; Battini, N.; Bortolus, A.; Schwindt, E. (2020). Cleaning by beaching: introducing a new alternative for hull biofouling management in Argentina. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 63-80. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29. Canning-Clode, J.; Fofonoff, P.; McCann, L.; Carlton, J.; Ruiz, G. (2013). Marine invasions on a subtropical island: fouling studies and new records in a recent marina on Madeira Island (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(3): 261-270. Canning-Clode, J.; Fofonoff, P.; McCann, L.; Carlton, J.; Ruiz, G. (2013). Marine invasions on a subtropical island: fouling studies and new records in a recent marina on Madeira Island (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(3): 261-270. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Callahan, A.; Deibel, D.; McKenzie, C.; Hall, J.; Rise, M. (2010). Survey of harbours in Newfoundland for indigenous and non-indigenous ascidians and an analysis of their cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 5(1): 31-39. Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. <em>BioInvasions Records.</em> 1: 235-245. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Millar, R. H. (1955). On a collection of ascidians from South Africa. <em>Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.</em> 125(1): 169-221. North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Molnar, J. L.; Gamboa, R. L.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492. Stolfi, A.; Sasakura, Y.; Chalopin, D.; Satou, Y.; Christiaen, L.; Dantec, C.; Endo, T.; Naville, M.; Nishida, H.; Swalla, B. J.; Volff, J.-N.; Voskoboynik, A.; Dauga, D.; Lemaire, P. (2014). Guidelines for the nomenclature of genetic elements in tunicate genomes. <em>Genesis.</em> 53(1): 1-14. Castro, K.; Giachetti, C.; Battini, N.; Bortolus, A.; Schwindt, E. (2020). Cleaning by beaching: introducing a new alternative for hull biofouling management in Argentina. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 63-80. Schwindt, E.; Carlton, J.; Orensanz, J.; Scarabino, F.; Bortolus, A. (2020). Past and future of the marine bioinvasions along the Southwestern Atlantic. <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 15(1): 11-29. Canning-Clode, J.; Fofonoff, P.; McCann, L.; Carlton, J.; Ruiz, G. (2013). Marine invasions on a subtropical island: fouling studies and new records in a recent marina on Madeira Island (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(3): 261-270. Canning-Clode, J.; Fofonoff, P.; McCann, L.; Carlton, J.; Ruiz, G. (2013). Marine invasions on a subtropical island: fouling studies and new records in a recent marina on Madeira Island (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). <em>Aquatic Invasions.</em> 8(3): 261-270. Grosholz, E. D.; Crafton, R. E.; Fontana, R. E.; Pasari, J. R.; Williams, S. L.; Zabin, C. J. (2015). Aquaculture as a vector for marine invasions in California. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(5): 1471-1484.
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]