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Behavior

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Striped marlin may communicate visually with conspecifics via use of their chromatophores. Such communication may be used to signal spawning readiness. Like other teleost fishes, striped marlin have olfactory nares to detect chemicals in the water, helping them find mates or prey. They also have large eyes which enable them to hunt at night or at depths with low levels of light. The lateral line, running along the sides of the fish, senses pressure differences and heightens its awareness of its surroundings.

Communication Channels: visual ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; vibrations ; chemical

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Conservation Status

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It is estimated that populations of striped marlin have declined by 20-25% since the mid 1990s. More detailed and frequent stock assessments in the Indian Ocean as well as the northwest Pacific Ocean need to be conducted to obtain basic biological information on this species for its effective management.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Life Cycle

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After spawning has occurred, fertilized eggs develop into planktonic, lecithotropic larvae that drift for several weeks to months before the larvae develop into small fry. Little is known specifically about the early life stages of this species.

Development - Life Cycle: indeterminate growth

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Benefits

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There are no known adverse effects of striped marlin on humans, though eating striped marlin and other large predatory fishes may put people at risk of illness due to high levels of mercury retained within the fish's muscle tissue.

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Jeremy Wright, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Striped marlin fight when caught by hook and line, providing sport fishermen with recreational opportunities. Catch and release of this species is recommended in waters of the United States. While this species is not usually consumed in the United States, it is considered a delicacy in Asia.

Positive Impacts: food ; ecotourism

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Associations

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Striped marlin have an important role in the epipelagic marine food chain as apex predators, helping to regulate the population of cephalopods and fish. Furthermore, this species hosts a number of parasites, including copepods and a variety of flatworm species.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Gloiopotes huttoni (Subclass Copepoda, Subphylum Crustacea)
  • Pennella filosa (Subclass Copepoda, Subphylum Crustacea)
  • Capsala ovalis (Class Monogenea, Phylum Platyhelminthes)
  • Capsaloides hofmannae (Class Monogenea, Phylum Platyhelminthes)
  • Capsaloides istiophori (Class Monogenea, Phylum Platyhelminthes)
  • Capsaloides sinuatus (Class Monogenea, Phylum Platyhelminthes)
  • Tristomella laevis (Class Monogenea, Phylum Platyhelminthes)
  • Tristomella pricei (Class Monogenea, Phylum Platyhelminthes)
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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Jeremy Wright, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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Planktonic larvae and small juveniles consume zooplankton. Dietary analysis of adult striped marlin during a yearly cycle in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico, found prey consisting of epipelagic organisms from the neritic and oceanic zones. The most abundant prey noted were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicas), California pilchard (Sardinops sagax) and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas).

Animal Foods: fish; mollusks; other marine invertebrates; zooplankton

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Molluscivore ); planktivore

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Jeremy Wright, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Striped marlin are pelagic billfish native to the Indian and Pacific oceans. They are found in coastal waters offshore of Africa, Mexico, South America, and New Zealand. In North American waters, Striped marlin are most common south of Point Conception, California, but range as far north as Oregon.

Biogeographic Regions: indian ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Jeremy Wright, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Striped marlin inhabit pelagic waters and their population density is positively correlated with distance from shore. These fish are generally found in the epipelagic zone.

Range depth: 0 to 200 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: pelagic ; coastal

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Life Expectancy

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Striped marlin live from 8 to 10 years. They are not maintained in captivity.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
8 to 10 years.

Typical lifespan
Status: wild:
8 to 10 years.

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Jeremy Wright, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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Striped marlin are bony fish that are similar in appearance to sailfish, with a distinguishable difference in the dorsal fin (in Striped marlin the dorsal fin is much smaller and tapers toward the caudle peduncle). With a fusiform-shaped body, striped marlin glide through the water with little resistance. Striped marlin have the thinnest bill amongst all billfishes and slash their prey as opposed to impaling them as other members of the family do. Striped marlin have a distinct color patterning of 10-20 blue bars extending from the head and continuing to the caudal fin. When the fish is excited, the coloration of these bars rapidly changes from blue to lavender via the contraction or expansion of chromatophores (special pigmented cells in the integument).

Range mass: 224 (high) kg.

Range length: 3.35 (high) m.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Jeremy Wright, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Associations

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The only known predators of this species are great white sharks, killer whales, and humans.

Known Predators:

  • Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias)
  • Killer whale (Orcinus orca)
  • Humans (Homo sapiens)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Jeremy Wright, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

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Striped marlin form groups and/or schools during their reproductive season. As a broadcast spawning species, males and females potentially have multiple mates. Further information regarding courtship behavior is currently unavailable.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Female striped marlin reach sexual maturity at 1.5-2.5 years of age while males reach sexual maturity at 1-2 years of age. Striped marlin reproduce by broadcast spawning (the female releases eggs which are fertilized in the water column). Females may produce 11-29 million eggs annually.

Breeding interval: Striped marlin spawn annually.

Breeding season: Striped marlin spawn during the months of November and December

Range number of offspring: 11 million to 29 million.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1.5 to 2.5 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 to 2 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); broadcast (group) spawning; oviparous

Gametes are shed into the water during spawning; there is no further parental care.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement

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Nicholas Shannon, N. 2012. "Tetrapturus audax" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tetrapturus_audax.html
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Nathaniel Roughton Nicholas Shannon, San Diego Mesa College
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Paul Detwiler, San Diego Mesa College
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Body elongated and compressed; upper jaw produced into a robust and medium sized beak; two dorsal fins, the height of the first greater than the greatest depth, short anteriorly, taller in the middle, then becoming shorter posteriorly; pectoral fins falcate and flexible, with 18 to 22 rays; body densely covered by small, embedded scales with 1 or 2 bluntish points; back dark blue; belly silvery; membrane of first dorsal fin blue black without dark spots; flanks with about 20 bluish stripes (Ref. 55763). Blue-black above and silvery white below, with about 15 rows of cobalt-colored stripes; 1st dorsal fin dark blue; other fins dark brown, sometimes with a tinge of dark blue; anal fin bases with a tinge of silvery white.
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Recorder
Cristina V. Garilao
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Life Cycle

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Females are indeterminate batch spawners with asynchronous oocyte development (Ref. 92477). Larvae are most abundant in the respective local early summers. The seasonal occurrence of mature females coincides with that of the larvae. The lower temperature limit in the distribution of larvae is approximately 24°C, both in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.Spawning sites are between 10°S and 30°S in Southwest Pacific and 10°S and 20°S in northeastern Indian Ocean (Ref. 6390).
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Armi G. Torres
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Migration

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 42 - 48; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 18 - 24
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Trophic Strategy

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There is little information on the distribution of striped marlin eggs and larvae (Ref. 6390). Juveniles are relatively rare in the southwest Pacific Ocean (Ref. 30443). Fish of 4-10 kg (80-100 cm FL) are regularly caught on longlines in the region but concentrations of fish this size are most restricted to the northcentral Pacific Ocean (Ref. 30443).Striped marlin are carnivorous, non-selective feeders whose diet includes more epipelagic organisms than the diets or other billfish and larger tunas (Ref. 6390). Their diet changes with season and locality (Ref. 6390).
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Biology

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Epipelagic and oceanic species, usually found above the thermocline. Generally inhabit cooler water than either black (Makaira indica) or blue marlin (M. mazara) (Ref. 43). Most dominant and widely distributed of all billfishes. Their abundance increases with distance from the continental shelf (Ref. 6390). Usually seen close to shore only where deep drop-offs occur (Ref. 6390). Mostly solitary, but form small schools by size during the spawning season (Ref. 9987). They are usually dispersed at considerably wide distances. Feed on fishes, crustaceans and squids. Also caught with the harpoon. The flesh is the best among billfishes for sashimi and sushi. Marketed mostly frozen, sometimes fresh (Ref. 43); also smoked and frozen (Ref. 9987). Also Ref. 9137, 9574.
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Importance

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fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
廣泛分布於印度洋及太平洋之熱帶、亞熱帶海域,少數會進入溫帶海域,有些會越過好望角而進入大西洋。主要分布於東部海域。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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臺灣魚類資料庫

利用

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
經濟性魚種,全世界產量在500-2,000公噸。常用延繩釣或鏢旗魚法捕獲。紅肉旗魚的肉正如其名是紅色的,可以作生魚片,外銷到日本賺取外匯,也可以油炸或炒排骨食之。
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描述

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
體延長而極側扁;尾柄細而強狀,具二隆起脊。頭較長;吻長而尖,明顯較下頜突出。口大,微斜裂。頜齒呈絨毛狀齒帶,鋤骨無齒。體被細長骨質鱗;側線單一,平直至尾部。第一背鰭軟條部等於或略高於體高,大部分軟條由前而後大致逐漸短小;第二背鰭短小;胸鰭位低,呈鐮刀狀,幾等長於腹鰭;腹鰭胸位,起點在胸鰭基底下方,向後不延伸至肛門;尾鰭深叉形。體背褐色,腹部銀白色,體側具白色橫帶。第一背鰭藍黑色而具黑斑,此斑隨成長而消失;腹鰭藍黑色;尾鰭暗色。以前所記載之/Tetrapturus audax/為同種異名。
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臺灣魚類資料庫

棲地

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
大洋性中上層洄游性魚類,一般皆發現在躍溫層之上的水域,較少成群出現於沿岸水域。游泳速度快。具繁殖洄游之習性。主要攝食魚類、甲殼類及頭足類等。
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Striped marlin

provided by wikipedia EN

The striped marlin (Kajikia audax) is a species of marlin found in tropical to temperate Indo-Pacific oceans not far from the surface. It is a desirable commercial and game fish with a record weight (in 1982) of over 200 kg (440 lb) and a maximum length of 4.2 m (13.8 ft). The striped marlin' is a predator that hunts during the day in the top 100 m or so of the water column, often near the surface. One of their chief prey is sardines.

Sustainable consumption

In 2010, Greenpeace International has added the striped marlin to its seafood red list. [2]

Fisheries

 src=
Capture of striped marlin in tonnes from 1950 to 2009
Tetrapturus audax.jpg

References

  1. ^ Collette, B.; Acero, A.; Boustany, A.; et al. (2011). "Kajikia audax". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T170309A6738801. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T170309A6738801.en.
  2. ^ Greenpeace International Seafood Red list
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Striped marlin: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The striped marlin (Kajikia audax) is a species of marlin found in tropical to temperate Indo-Pacific oceans not far from the surface. It is a desirable commercial and game fish with a record weight (in 1982) of over 200 kg (440 lb) and a maximum length of 4.2 m (13.8 ft). The striped marlin' is a predator that hunts during the day in the top 100 m or so of the water column, often near the surface. One of their chief prey is sardines.

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