Definition: A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable, and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
Definition: An aquatic biome that comprises systems of open-ocean and unprotected coastal habitats, characterized by exposure to wave action, tidal fluctuation, and ocean currents as well as systems that largely resemble these. Water in the marine biome is generally within the salinity range of seawater: 30 to 38 ppt.
Definition: The benthopelagic zone biome comprises regions of the marine water column which usually coincide with the benthic boundary layer (BBL) - the layer of isothermal and isohaline water contiguous to the sea floor. A general reversal in the declining gradient of pelagic biomass may be observed here, perhaps explained by viable nutrition on the sea floor being resuspended by bottom currents. This zone typically extends 100 m above the seafloor, but may reach upto1000 m during benthic storms.
Definition: a type of pectoral-fin-based swimming, also known as mobuliform locomotion. Lower frequency than fin undulation; can be described as the production of less than half a wave on the fin, similar to a bird wing flapping. Pelagic stingrays use oscillatory locomotion.