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Japanese Bullhead Shark

Heterodontus japonicus Miklouho-Maclay & Macleay 1884

Diagnostic Description

provided by FAO species catalogs
fieldmarks: Dorsal fins with spines, anal fin present, first dorsal-fin origin over pectoral-fin bases, colour pattern of 11 to 14 broad, irregular-edged, dark saddles and vertical stripes on a light background. Supraorbital ridges moderately low, gradually ending posteriorly; interorbital space shallowly concave, depth between ridges about half eye length.

Anterior holding teeth with a cusp and a pair of cusplets in adults, posterior molariform teeth not carinate and greatly expanded and rounded.

Pre-first dorsal-fin length 21 to 25% and anal-caudal space 8 to 10% of total length. Lateral trunk denticles large and rough.

Propterygium separate, not fused to mesopterygium.

First dorsal-fin spine directed obliquely posterodorsally in hatchlings, juveniles and adults; first dorsal-fin origin anterior to pectoral-fin insertions and slightly behind pectoral-fin midbases, well posterior to fifth gill openings; first dorsal-fin insertion well anterior to pelvic-fin origins, well behind pectoral-fin insertions; first dorsal-fin free rear tip about opposite to or slightly ahead or behind pelvic-fin origins; first dorsal fin very high and broadly semifalcate in young but moderately high and semifalcate in adults, height 11 to 21% of total length, first dorsal fin much larger than pelvic fins. Second dorsal-fin origin over or slightly in front of pelvic-fin rear tips, broadly falcate and much smaller than first dorsal fin. Anal fin subangular and rounded to weakly falcate, apex well anterior to lower caudal-fin origin when laid back; anal-caudal space nearly or quite twice anal-fin base.

Total vertebral count 109 to 116, precaudal count 72 to 78, monospondylous precaudal count 33 to 39, diplospondylous precaudal count 37 to 42, pre-first dorsal-fin spine count 15 to 17, and count from diplospondylous transition to second dorsal-fin spine 9 to 15.

Egg cases with flat thin spiral flanges diagonal to case axis and having a pair of very short, slender tendrils on case apex, flanges with three turns.

A large species, mature between 69 and 120 cm.

Background colour of dorsal surface tan to brown with 11 to 14 brown diffuse-edged markings from snout tip to origin of caudal fin, including broad saddles and narrower vertical bands usually between them, body without light or dark spots, bands and saddles not arranged in a harness pattern; head with a light-coloured bar on interorbital surface, and with a single broad dark blotch under eye that is indistinct in large adults; fins without abrupt dark tips and white dorsal-fin apices; hatchlings without whorls on fins and body, pattern as in adults although brighter.

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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Distribution

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Western North Pacific: Japan, Korean peninsula, northern China, and Taiwan (Province of China). An East African record is apparently erroneous.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Size

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Maximum total length about 120 cm. Size at hatching about 18 cm; males adult at 69 cm.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
A common, temperate-water bullhead shark of the western North Pacific continental shelf,occurring at moderate depths of 6 to 37 m, on or near the bottom. It prefers rocky areas (including reefs) and kelp-covered bottom. This is a sluggish, slow-swimming shark, easily caught by divers. It slowly explores the bottom, swimming and 'walking' with its mobile paired fins. Oviparous, laying its large spiral-cased eggs among rocks or in kelp, at depths of about 8 or 9 m; several females may lay their eggs in a single site, termed 'nests', although they apparently do not guard these sites after laying. In Japanese waters, eggs are laid from March through September, most abundantly in March through April; each female usually lays two eggs at a time, for 6 to 12 spawnings. Eggs hatch in about a year.

The Japanese bullhead shark feeds on crustaceans, molluscs (including top shells [Trochidae; Gastropoda]), small fishes and sea urchins. It can protrude its jaws a considerable distance while grabbing prey.

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bibliographic citation
Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Benefits

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Interest to fisheries probably minimal, caught and eaten in Japan and presumably elsewhere in its range. Kept in public aquaria in Japan.
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bibliographic citation
Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Life Cycle

provided by Fishbase
Oviparous. Eggs are laid in rocks or in kelp at depths of about 8 or 9 m and are present from March through September. Eggs are more abundant, however, in March and April. Eggs are hatched in about a year; size at hatching is about 18 cm. There may be a `nest' for several females laying eggs but this is not a true nest. A female lays two eggs at a time, for 6 to 12 spawnings.
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Recorder
Susan M. Luna
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Trophic Strategy

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Found on the continental shelf, more commonly on rocky and kelp-covered bottom. Feeds on crustaceans, molluscs (including top shells), small fishes and sea urchins. Also in Ref. 9137.
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Drina Sta. Iglesia
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Biology

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Found near shore on the continental shelf, more commonly on rocky and kelp-covered bottom (Ref. 43278, 11230). Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks (including top shells), small fishes and sea urchins. Oviparous (Ref. 43278, 50449). Grabs prey by protruding its jaw with considerable distance.
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Kent E. Carpenter
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Importance

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fisheries: minor commercial; price category: unknown; price reliability:
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
分布於西北太平洋區,包括日本、韓國、臺灣及中國等。臺灣分布於北部海域。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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利用

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
偶而被漁民以延繩釣捕獲,為罕見之魚種,不具經濟價值,大型水族館偶有展示。
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描述

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
體延長,前部粗大,後部漸細小;背部輪廓稍圓凸,腹面平坦;頭圓錐狀而稍住上揚。吻短寬而鈍圓。眼橢圓形,上側位,無瞬膜。眶上隆棘較低。眼上方頭背部不明顯的往後下方傾斜。口裂位於眼前下方;上下頜齒同型,前部齒細小,具3-5尖頭,後部齒寬扁,臼齒狀,中央無隆棘。鰓裂5對。噴水孔小,位於眼下方。鼻孔緣無觸鬚,但具明顯之口鼻溝;前鼻瓣往後延伸達口裂。盾鱗粗厚,呈十字形。背鰭2個,各具一硬棘,第一背鰭起點於胸鰭基部後端;第二背鰭略小於第一背鰭,距尾鰭之距離遠於距臀鰭之距離;臀鰭略小於第二背鰭,基底末端至尾鰭下葉起點之距離短於臀鰭基底長之兩倍。體黃褐色,腹面白色,體背具褐色之寬橫帶。
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棲地

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
主要棲息於大陸棚之近海中小型鯊魚,通常在岩礁區或海藻繁生的水域。主要以甲殼類、軟體動物、小魚或海膽為食。行動緩慢。卵生,卵大而具螺旋形卵殼,數條雌魚一起產卵,將卵成堆產於岩石處或海藻堆,約在一年後可孵出,剛孵出之仔魚的18公分左右。
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Japanese bullhead shark

provided by wikipedia EN

The Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus) is a species of bullhead shark in the family Heterodontidae found in the northwestern Pacific Ocean off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. This benthic shark occurs at depths of 6–37 m (20–121 ft) over rocky bottoms or kelp beds. Measuring up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) long, it can be identified by its short, blunt head, two high dorsal fins with anterior spines, and pattern of irregularly shaped, vertical brown bands and stripes. The Japanese bullhead shark is a docile, slow-swimming species that feeds mainly on shelled invertebrates and small bony fishes. Reproduction is oviparous, with females laying spiral-flanged eggs in communal "nests". This species is of little interest to fisheries.

Taxonomy

The Japanese bullhead shark was originally described as Cestracion japonicus by ichthyologists Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay and William John Macleay, in an 1884 volume of Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. The type specimen is a female caught off Tokyo. Other common names used for this species include bull head, cat shark, Japanese horn shark, Cestracion shark, and Port Jackson shark (which usually refers to Heterodontus portusjacksoni).[1][2]

Description

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The color pattern of the Japanese bullhead shark distinguish it from similar species.

A modest-sized shark reaching a maximum known length of 1.2 m (3.9 ft), the Japanese bullhead shark has a cylindrical body with the short, wide head and blunt, pig-like snout typical of the bullhead sharks. The eyes lack a nictitating membrane and are followed by tiny spiracles. Shallow supraorbital ridges are present above the eyes, and the space between them is slightly concave. The nostrils are divided into incurrent and excurrent openings by long flaps of skin that reach the mouth; the incurrent opening is encircled by a groove while another groove runs from the excurrent opening to the mouth. The small mouth is positioned nearly at the tip of the snout; the front teeth are small with a sharp central cusp flanked by a pair of lateral cusplets, while the back teeth are broad and rounded. There are deep furrows at the corners of the mouth, extending onto both jaws.[1] Despite the research done, the morphology is not well understood. A recent research shows that the spiracle of elasmobranchs is a gill-slitderived tube located behind the eye.[3]

The first dorsal fin is very large and high, and is somewhat falcate (sickle-shaped); it originates over the bases of the pectoral fins. The second dorsal fin is much smaller, but similar in shape, and originates over the rear tips of the pelvic fins. Both dorsal fins bear stout spines on their leading edges. The pectoral fins are large; the pelvic fins are much smaller than the first dorsal fin. The anal fin is placed well in front of the caudal fin, which is broad with a short lower lobe and a long upper lobe bearing a strong ventral notch near the tip. The dermal denticles are large and rough, particularly on the sides of the body. The coloration is light brown, with a series of diffuse-edged, darker wide bands interspersed with narrower stripes from snout to tail, numbering 11–14 in all. A faint lighter band is on top of the head between the eyes, and a darker blotch is beneath each eye.[1]

Distribution and habitat

The range of the Japanese bullhead shark extends from Japan to the Korean Peninsula, and southward along the coast of China to Taiwan. A single, apparently erroneous, record from off East Africa is reported. This bottom-dwelling shark inhabits the continental shelf at a depth of 6–37 m (20–121 ft), preferring areas covered by rocks, rocky reefs, or kelp.[1]

Biology and ecology

 src=
A Japanese bullhead shark off Kawana, Japan

The Japanese bullhead shark is a slow-moving predator that feeds on crustaceans, molluscs, small fishes, and sea urchins, often hunting for them while "walking" along the sea bottom with alternating motions of its pectoral and pelvic fins. When prey is found, it is seized with highly protrusible jaws and ground to pieces with the molar-like rear teeth.[1] Known parasites of this species include the copepod Dissonus pastinum,[4] and the haemogregarine protozoan Haemogregarina heterodontii.[5]

Like other members of its family, the Japanese bullhead shark is oviparous. Females produce large egg capsules bearing thin flanges spiraling three times around the outside and a pair of short tendrils at the tip. The eggs are deposited at a depth of 8–9 m (26–30 ft) within beds of rock or kelp.[1] Several females may spawn communally in a single "nest", which may contain up to 15 eggs total, though the females abandon the site afterward.[1][6] In Japanese waters, females lay pairs of eggs 6–12 times between March and September, with a peak in spawning activity in March and April. The eggs take about a year to hatch; the newborns measure 18 cm (7.1 in) long. Young sharks have proportionately higher dorsal fins and a similar but brighter color pattern than adults. Males attain sexual maturity at a length of 69 cm (27 in).[1]

Human interactions

Harmless to humans, the Japanese bullhead shark can be easily hand-caught by divers. It is of only minor fisheries interest as a source of food in Japan and likely elsewhere. It is also exhibited in Japanese public aquariums.[1] The conservation status of this species has not been evaluated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).[2] It has apparently disappeared from offshore waters in the Bohai Sea, possibly as a consequence of climate change.[7]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Compagno, L.J.V. (2002). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Vol. 2. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 39–40. ISBN 92-5-104543-7.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2009). "Heterodontus japonicus" in FishBase. October 2009 version.
  3. ^ [author=Tomita T year=2018
  4. ^ Deets, G.B.; M. Dojiri (1990). "Dissonus pastinum n. sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Dissonidae), a copepod parasitic on a horn shark from Japan". Beaufortia. 41 (8): 49–54.
  5. ^ Baker, J.R.; R. Muller; D. Rollinson, eds. (1995). Advances in Parasitology, Volume 36. Academic Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-12-031736-2.
  6. ^ Martin, R.A. Heterodontiformes: Bullhead Sharks. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Retrieved on October 28, 2009.
  7. ^ Yang, J.; L. Li; S. Xia (1995). "Influence of Climate Change on Living Resources in the Offshore Waters of China". In Beamish, R.J (ed.). Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. NRC Research Press. pp. 531–535. ISBN 0-660-15780-2.
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Japanese bullhead shark: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus) is a species of bullhead shark in the family Heterodontidae found in the northwestern Pacific Ocean off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. This benthic shark occurs at depths of 6–37 m (20–121 ft) over rocky bottoms or kelp beds. Measuring up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) long, it can be identified by its short, blunt head, two high dorsal fins with anterior spines, and pattern of irregularly shaped, vertical brown bands and stripes. The Japanese bullhead shark is a docile, slow-swimming species that feeds mainly on shelled invertebrates and small bony fishes. Reproduction is oviparous, with females laying spiral-flanged eggs in communal "nests". This species is of little interest to fisheries.

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Diet

provided by World Register of Marine Species
feeds on crustaceans, molluscs (including top shells [Trochidae; Gastropoda]), small fishes and sea urchins.
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bibliographic citation
Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p.
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Elien Dewitte [email]
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Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
A common, temperate-water bullhead shark of the western North Pacific continental shelf, occurring at moderate depths of 6 to 37 m, on or near the bottom. It prefers rocky areas (including reefs) and kelp-covered bottom.
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bibliographic citation
Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p. Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). <em>FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes.</em> No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269p.
contributor
Elien Dewitte [email]
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Elien Dewitte [email]