dcsimg

Diagnostic Description

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fieldmarks: Slender, spindle-shaped body, moderately long conical snout, large blade-like teeth without lateral cusplets or serrations, long gill slits, pectoral fins broad-tipped and as long or longer than head, large first dorsal fin with light free rear tip, minute, pivoting second dorsal and anal fins, strong keels on caudal peduncle, short secondary keels on caudal base, crescentic caudal fin, ventral surface of body dusky on underside of head. Snout broadly pointed. Eyes relatively large. Mouth parabolic in shape.Body slender and elongated.

Lower anterior teeth slightly protruding from jaws and in line with the laterals; anterior teeth with relatively broad, nearly straight cusps with unflexed tips; cusps of first upper anterior teeth with complete cutting edges; intermediate teeth with nearly straight or slightly hooked cusps.

Pectoral fins nearly straight and very broad-tipped, anterior margins about 23 to 31% of total length and equal to or greater than head length. Origin of first dorsal fin well behind the pectoral free rear tip; first dorsal-fin apex broadly rounded and hardly angular at all stages; first dorsal-fin height greater than base length at all stages (smaller in term foetuses).

Vertebral total count 195 to 197.

Colour: dorsolateral coloration dark slaty blue or grey-black in life, underside white but with underside of snout and jaws dark in adults and large juveniles though not in young; dark colour of head entirely covering gill septa; dark colour of flanks extending ventrally onto abdomen in adults; pelvic fin completely dark, underside white with prominent dark margin; first dorsal fin as dark as back; anal fin dark except for white free rear tip and posterior margin.

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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. . No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Distribution

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Oceanic and tropical, probably circumtropical but records sporadic and distribution sketchily known, probably often mistaken for the apparently far more commonIsurus oxyrinchus or included with records for it. Western Atlantic: Florida, Gulf Stream off eastern USA, Cuba, southern Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Spain, Portugal, probably Mediterranean, Morocco, Western Sahara, Canary Islands, Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Ghana, ?Cape Verde Islands. Western Indian Ocean: ? South Africa, Madagascar.Western Pacific: Japan, Taiwan (Province of China), Australia (Queensland and northern New SouthWales, also possibly off northern Australia). Central Pacific: Northeast of Micronesia, between Solomon and Nauru Islands, area south of Johnston and Hawaiian Islands, near Phoenix Island, and north of Hawaiian Islands. Eastern Pacific: United States (southern California).
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. . No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Size

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Maximum reported 417 cm; size at birth between 97 and 120 cm; a male (Central Pacific) was adult at 245 cm; adult females (western North Atlantic) were 245 to 417 cm long.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. . No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Brief Summary

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A little-known epipelagic, tropical and warm-temperate shark, apparently common in the western Atlantic and possibly in the Central Pacific, but rare elsewhere. Said to be deep-dwelling but bathymetric data was not available. The biology of the longfin mako is poorly known. In the eastern Atlantic this species is possibly rare compared to Isurus oxyrinchus, and landings of longfin mako in Spanish fishing ports sampled by Moreno and Morón (1992) included only 51 specimens compared with 45 679 shortfin mako (0.1%). The often slimmer build and broad, long pectoral fins of this shark suggest that it is slower and less active than its better-known relative, the shortfin mako (J. Casey, pers. comm.). Its macroceanic morphology suggests similar slow cruising in the epipelagic zone as in the oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) and the blue shark (Prionace glauca) rather than the more active, scombroid-like swimming of I. oxyrinchus. The longfin mako is apparently endothermic, with countercurrent vascular heat exchangers for its body musculature, eyes, brain and viscera as in other lamnids (Carey, 1982), but the levels of temperature elevation it can achieve above ambient conditions have apparently not been measured. The longfin mako is ovoviviparous, with uterine cannibalism; foetuses are larger than those of I. oxyrinchus, are full-term at 92 to 120 cm, and occur as a litter of 2 to 8 young. It may approach land to give birth.

Food of this shark is presumably schooling fish and pelagic cephalopods. Michael (1993) noted that one was found with a swordfish sword stuck in its abdomen, though it is not known if swordfish are an important item of this mako's diet as with the shortfin mako.

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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. . No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Benefits

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Probably taken regularly in tropical pelagic longline fisheries for tuna and swordfish as bycatch (with some marketed in Tokyo). Historically it was often taken in the Cuban longlines fishery for sharks off the north coast of Cuba and averaged about a sixth of the total weight of sharks caught there in 1971-1972. Whether it is still as common there at present is unknown. In addition to longlines, the species is taken with hooks and lines and with anchored gill nets. It is utilized fresh, frozen and dried-salted for human consumption but the meat is of lower quality than the shortfin mako and it is often finned and discarded at sea.
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Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. . No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
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Diagnostic Description

provided by Fishbase
Pectoral fins about as long as head or longer, relatively broad-tipped in young and adults; snout usually narrowly to bluntly pointed, usually not acute; cusps of upper and lower anterior teeth straighter, with tips not reversed (Ref. 43278). Caudal fin lunate, with a very long lower lobe (Ref. 13574). Dark blue above, white below, with dusky markings on underside of snout, around mouth (Ref. 6581).
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Recorder
Cristina V. Garilao
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Life Cycle

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Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding on other ova produced by the mother (oophagy) after the yolk sac is absorbed (Ref. 50449). With litters of 2-8 pups (Ref. 247, Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Born at 97-120 cm TL (Ref.58048).
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Migration

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Morphology

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Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Biology

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Oceanic species that probably approaches land to give birth (Ref. 13574, 58302). Epipelagic (Ref. 58302). Presumably feeds on schooling fishes and pelagic cephalopods (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother (Ref. 50449). With 2 pups in a litter (Ref. 247). Potentially dangerous because of its large size and big teeth (Ref. 13574). Utilized fresh, frozen, and dried or salted for human consumption (Ref. 247); meat (lower quality), fins (high value in adults), jaws (highly prized), skin and cartilage (Ref.58048).
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Importance

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fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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分布

provided by The Fish Database of Taiwan
廣泛分布於世界各溫帶及熱帶之大部分海域。臺灣南部、北部、東北部及東部海域有分布。
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臺灣魚類資料庫
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利用

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主要以流刺網及鏢旗魚法捕獲,經濟價值高。肉質佳,魚肉紅燒或加工成各種肉製品;鰭可做魚翅;皮厚可加工成皮革;肝可加工製成魚肝油;剩餘物製成魚粉。
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描述

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體呈紡錘型,軀幹較粗壯,頭、尾漸細細小。尾基上下方各具一凹窪;尾柄具側突。吻長而尖突。眼大,圓形,無瞬膜。鼻孔小,近於眼端。口裂寬,深弧形;唇褶約為頜長之半。頜齒側齒而尖銳;前端齒頭細長彎曲,後端齒頭短寬,三角形;無側齒頭;每側每列約12-13個,2-3列使用。噴水孔細小,位於口角上方。背鰭2個,第一背鰭中大,起點與胸鰭後端相對,後緣凹入,上角略尖圓,下角尖突;第二背鰭很小,基底後部與臀鰭起點相對,後緣微凹入,上角鈍圓,下角延長尖突;胸鰭特別延長,鐮刀狀,長於頭長,後緣凹入,外角鈍尖,內角鈍圓;尾鰭寬短,尾椎軸稍上揚,上尾叉較長大,由上葉、尾椎軸及下葉中部組成;下尾叉較短小,由尾鰭下葉前部的突出部分組成,中、後部間具缺刻。體背側青灰色;吻腹側暗黑色;腹部淡色至白色。
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棲地

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近海上層大型鯊魚,性兇猛,善游泳,速度快,可能是鯊魚中游速最快的一種。主要巡游於大海,有時會游至沿岸及近海大陸棚及島棚水域,夏季會隨暖流移動。棲息深度由表層至深達500公尺左右,一般皆被發現於水表層。卵胎生,胎兒在子宮內有同種相殘習性,一胎可產下2尾幼鯊,剛產下之幼鯊體長可達92-97公分左右。性兇猛,掠食鯖、鯡魚類、頭足類及海龜等。
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Longfin mako shark

provided by wikipedia EN

The longfin mako shark (Isurus paucus) is a species of mackerel shark in the family Lamnidae, with a probable worldwide distribution in temperate and tropical waters. An uncommon species, it is typically lumped together under the name "mako" with its better-known relative, the shortfin mako shark (I. oxyrinchus). The longfin mako is a pelagic species found in moderately deep water, having been reported to a depth of 220 m (720 ft). Growing to a maximum length of 4.3 m (14 ft), the slimmer build and long, broad pectoral fins of this shark suggest that it is a slower and less active swimmer than the shortfin mako.

Longfin mako sharks are predators that feed on small schooling bony fishes and cephalopods. Whether this shark is capable of elevating its body temperature above that of the surrounding water like the other members of its family is uncertain, though it possesses the requisite physiological adaptations. Reproduction in this species is aplacental viviparous, meaning the embryos hatch from eggs inside the uterus. In the later stages of development, the unborn young are fed nonviable eggs by the mother (oophagy). The litter size is typically two, but may be as many as eight. The longfin mako is of limited commercial value, as its meat and fins are of lower quality than those of other pelagic sharks; however, it is caught unintentionally in low numbers across its range. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed this species as endangered due to its rarity, low reproductive rate, and continuing bycatch mortality. In 2019, alongside the shortfin mako, the IUCN listed the longfin mako as "Endangered".[3][4][5]

Taxonomy and phylogeny

The original description of the longfin mako was published in 1966 by Cuban marine scientist Darío Guitart-Manday, in the scientific journal Poeyana, based on three adult specimens from the Caribbean Sea. An earlier synonym of this species may be Lamiostoma belyaevi, described by Glückman in 1964. However, the type specimen designated by Glückman consists of a set of fossil teeth that could not be confirmed as belonging to the longfin mako, thus the name paucus took precedence over belyaevi, despite being published later.[6] The specific epithet paucus is Latin for "few", referring to the rarity of this species relative to the shortfin mako.[7]

The sister species relationship between the longfin and shortfin mako has been confirmed by several phylogenetic studies based on mitochondrial DNA. In turn, the closest relative of the two mako sharks is the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias).[8] Fossil teeth belonging to the longfin mako have been recovered from the Muddy Creek marl of the Grange Burn formation, south of Hamilton, Australia, and from Mizumani Group in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Both deposits date to the Middle Miocene Epoch (15–11 million years ago (mya)).[9][10] The oligo-miocene fossil shark tooth taxon Isurus retroflexus may be the ancestor to or even conspecific with the Longfin Mako.

Distribution and habitat

Widely scattered records suggest that the longfin mako shark has a worldwide distribution in tropical and warm-temperate oceans; the extent of its range is difficult to determine due to confusion with the shortfin mako. In the Atlantic Ocean, it is known from the Gulf Stream off the East Coast of the United States, the Caribbean, and southern Brazil in the west, and from the Iberian Peninsula to Ghana in the east, possibly including the Mediterranean Sea and Cape Verde. In the Indian Ocean, it has been reported from the Mozambique Channel. In the Pacific Ocean, it occurs off Japan and Taiwan, northeastern Australia, a number of islands in the Central Pacific northeast of Micronesia, and southern California.[6]

An inhabitant of the open ocean, the longfin mako generally remains in the upper mesopelagic zone during the day and ascends into the epipelagic zone at night. Off Cuba, it is most frequently caught at a depth of 110–220 m (360–720 ft) and is rare at depths above 90 m (300 ft). Off New South Wales, most catches occur at a depth of 50–190 m (160–620 ft), in areas with a surface temperature around 20–24 °C (68–75 °F).[11]

Description

The longfin mako is the larger of the two mako and the second-largest species in its family (after the great white), reaching upwards of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) in length and weighing over 70 kg (150 lb); females grow larger than males.[12] The largest reported longfin mako was a 4.3-metre-long (14 ft) female caught off Pompano Beach, Florida, in February 1984.[11] This species has a slim, fusiform shape with a long, pointed snout and large eyes that lack nictitating membranes (protective third eyelids). Twelve to 13 tooth rows occur on either side of the upper jaw and 11–13 tooth rows are on either side of the lower jaw. The teeth are large and knife-shaped, without serrations or secondary cusps; the outermost teeth in the lower jaw protrude prominently from the mouth. The gill slits are long and extend onto the top of head.[6][12]

The pectoral fins are as long or longer than the head, with a nearly straight front margin and broad tips. The first dorsal fin is large with a rounded apex, and is placed behind the pectoral fins. The second dorsal and anal fins are tiny. The caudal peduncle is expanded laterally into strong keels. The caudal fin is crescent-shaped, with a small notch near the tip of the upper lobe. The dermal denticles are elliptical, longer than wide, with three to seven horizontal ridges leading to a toothed posterior margin. The coloration is dark blue to grayish black above and white below. The unpaired fins are dark except for a white rear margin on the anal fin; the pectoral and pelvic fins are dark above and white below with sharp gray posterior margins. In adults and large juveniles, the area beneath the snout, around the jaw, and the origin of the pectoral fins have dusky mottling.[6][12]

Biology and ecology

The biology of the longfin mako is little-known; it is somewhat common in the western Atlantic and possibly the central Pacific, while in the eastern Atlantic, it is rare and outnumbered over 1,000-fold by the shortfin mako in fishery landings.[1][6] The longfin mako's slender body and long, broad pectoral fins evoke the oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus) and the blue shark (Prionace glauca), both slow-cruising sharks of upper oceanic waters. This morphological similarity suggests that the longfin mako is less active than the shortfin mako, one of the fastest and most energetic sharks.[6] Like the other members of its family, this species possesses blood vessel countercurrent exchange systems called the rete mirabilia (Latin for "wonderful net", singular rete mirabile) in its trunk musculature and around its eyes and brain. This system enables other mackerel sharks to conserve metabolic heat and maintain a higher body temperature than their environments, though whether the longfin mako is capable of the same is uncertain.[6]

The longfin mako has large eyes and is attracted to cyalume sticks (chemical lights), implying that it is a visual hunter. Its diet consists mainly of small, schooling bony fishes and squids. In October 1972, a 3.4-metre-long (11 ft) female with the broken bill from a swordfish (Xiphius gladias) lodged in her abdomen was caught in the northeastern Indian Ocean; whether the shark was preying on swordfish as the shortfin mako does, or encountered the swordfish in some other aggressive context is not known.[6][11] Adult longfin mako have no natural predators except for killer whales, while young individuals may fall prey to larger sharks.[12]

As in other mackerel sharks, the longfin mako is aplacental viviparous and typically gives birth to two pups at a time (one inside each uterus), though a 3.3-metre-long (11 ft) female pregnant with eight well-developed embryos was caught in the Mona Passage near Puerto Rico in January 1983.[11] The developing embryos are oophagous; once they deplete their supply of yolk, they sustain themselves by consuming large quantities of nonviable eggs ovulated by their mother. No evidence of sibling cannibalism is seen, as in the sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus). The pups measure 97–120 cm (3.18–3.94 ft) long at birth, relatively larger than the young of the shortfin mako, and have proportionally longer heads and pectoral fins than the adults.[12][13] Capture records off Florida suggest that during the winter, females swim into shallow coastal waters to give birth.[14] Male and female sharks reach sexual maturity at lengths around 2 m (6.6 ft) and 2.5 m (8.2 ft), respectively.[11]

Human interactions

 src=
The longfin mako is caught as bycatch on pelagic longlines

No attacks on humans have been attributed to the longfin mako shark.[6] Nevertheless, its large size and teeth make it potentially dangerous.[7] This shark is caught, generally in low numbers, as bycatch on longlines intended for tuna, swordfish, and other pelagic sharks, as well as in anchored gillnets and on hook-and-line. The meat is marketed fresh, frozen, or dried and salted, though it is considered to be of poor quality due to its mushy texture. The fins are also considered to be of lower quality for use in shark fin soup, though are valuable enough that captured sharks are often finned at sea.[1] The carcasses may be processed into animal feed and fish meal, while the skin, cartilage, and jaws are also of value.[12][14]

The most significant longfin mako catches are by Japanese tropical longline fisheries, and those sharks occasionally enter Tokyo fish markets. From 1987 to 1994, United States fisheries reported catches (discarded, as this species is worthless on the North American market) of 2–12 tons per year.[1] Since 1999, retention of this species has been prohibited by the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic sharks.[15] Longfin mako were once significant in the Cuban longline fishery, comprising one-sixth of the shark landings from 1971 to 1972; more recent data from this fishery are not available. The IUCN has assessed this species as "Vulnerable" due to its uncommonness, low reproductive rate, and susceptibility to shark fishing gear. It has also been listed under Annex I of the Convention on Migratory Species Migratory Shark Memorandum of Understanding.[16] In the North Atlantic, stocks of the shortfin mako have declined 40% or more since the late 1980s, and concerns exist that populations of the longfin mako are following the same trend.[1] In 2019, along with its relative the shortfin mako, the IUCN listed the longfin mako as "Endangered" due to continuing declines alongside 58 elasmobranch species.[3][4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Rigby, C.L.; Barreto, R.; Carlson, J.; Fernando, D.; Fordham, S.; Francis, M.P.; Jabado, R.W.; Liu, K.M.; Marshall, A.; Pacoureau, N.; Romanov, E.; Sherley, R.B.; Winker, H. (2019). "Isurus paucus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60225A3095898. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T60225A3095898.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  3. ^ a b "World's fastest shark endangered, 17 other species almost extinct, conservationists say". Fox News. 22 March 2019. Archived from the original on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-03-30. Retrieved 2019-03-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Press". Archived from the original on 2020-02-06. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Compagno, L.J.V. (2002). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date (Volume 2). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 115–117. ISBN 92-5-104543-7.
  7. ^ a b Ebert, D.A. (2003). Sharks, Rays, and Chimaeras of California. London: University of California Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0-520-23484-7.
  8. ^ Dosay-Abkulut, M. (2007). "What is the Relationship within the Family Lamnidae?" (PDF). Turkish Journal of Biology. 31: 109–113. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-20. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  9. ^ Fitzgerald, E. (2004). "A review of the Tertiary fossil Cetacea (Mammalia) localities in Australia" (PDF). Memoirs of Museum Victoria. 61 (2): 183–208. doi:10.24199/j.mmv.2004.61.12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-08-23.
  10. ^ Yabumoto, Y. & Uyeno, T. (1994). "Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic fish faunas of Japan". The Island Arc. 3 (4): 255–269. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1738.1994.tb00115.x. Archived from the original on 2019-03-30. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  11. ^ a b c d e Martin, R.A. Biology of the Longfin Mako (Isurus paucus) Archived 2019-09-02 at the Wayback Machine. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Retrieved on December 25, 2008.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Wilson, T. and Ford, T. Biological Profiles: Longfin Mako Archived 2019-04-17 at the Wayback Machine. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. Retrieved on December 25, 2008.
  13. ^ Gilmore, R.G. (May 6, 1983). "Observations on the Embryos of the Longfin Mako, Isurus paucus, and the Bigeye Thresher, Alopias superciliosus". Copeia. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. 1983 (2): 375–382. doi:10.2307/1444380. JSTOR 1444380.
  14. ^ a b Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2008). "Isurus paucus" in FishBase. December 2008 version.
  15. ^ Fowler, S.L.; Cavanagh, R.D.; Camhi, M.; Burgess, G.H.; Cailliet, G.M.; Fordham, S.V.; Simpfendorfer, C.A. & Musick, J.A. (2005). Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. pp. 106–109. ISBN 2-8317-0700-5.
  16. ^ Memorandum of Understanding – Migratory Sharks Archived 2013-04-20 at the Wayback Machine. Convention on Migratory Species. Downloaded on February 14, 2012.

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Longfin mako shark: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The longfin mako shark (Isurus paucus) is a species of mackerel shark in the family Lamnidae, with a probable worldwide distribution in temperate and tropical waters. An uncommon species, it is typically lumped together under the name "mako" with its better-known relative, the shortfin mako shark (I. oxyrinchus). The longfin mako is a pelagic species found in moderately deep water, having been reported to a depth of 220 m (720 ft). Growing to a maximum length of 4.3 m (14 ft), the slimmer build and long, broad pectoral fins of this shark suggest that it is a slower and less active swimmer than the shortfin mako.

Longfin mako sharks are predators that feed on small schooling bony fishes and cephalopods. Whether this shark is capable of elevating its body temperature above that of the surrounding water like the other members of its family is uncertain, though it possesses the requisite physiological adaptations. Reproduction in this species is aplacental viviparous, meaning the embryos hatch from eggs inside the uterus. In the later stages of development, the unborn young are fed nonviable eggs by the mother (oophagy). The litter size is typically two, but may be as many as eight. The longfin mako is of limited commercial value, as its meat and fins are of lower quality than those of other pelagic sharks; however, it is caught unintentionally in low numbers across its range. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed this species as endangered due to its rarity, low reproductive rate, and continuing bycatch mortality. In 2019, alongside the shortfin mako, the IUCN listed the longfin mako as "Endangered".

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Presumably feeds on schooling fishes and pelagic cephalopods. Ovoviviparous, with uterine cannibalism, with litter of two young. Potentially dangerous because of its large size and big teeth. Utilized fresh, frozen, nd dried/salted for human consumption.
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]
contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]

Diet

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Feeds on schooling fishes and pelagic cephalopods
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]

Distribution

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Gulf Stream and Florida to southern Brazil
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]

Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
nektonic
license
cc-by-4.0
copyright
WoRMS Editorial Board
bibliographic citation
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2021). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. version (08/2021). North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS) North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]
contributor
Kennedy, Mary [email]