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Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957

Behavior

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Monogeans in general have a cerebral ganglia at the anterior end, and the nervous system extends out in a ladder pattern. This species likely has chemosensors and mechanosensors.

Communication Channels: chemical

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Conservation Status

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Gyrodactylus salaris is a common parasite and is therefore not a species of concern.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Life Cycle

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All G. salaris are viviparous with embryos already containing a further developing embryo. These parasites have a specific birthing process of two daughters. The first daughter is created asexually from a ball of cells within the parent and then is released through the birth pore. The second daughter and all subsequent daughters develop from an oocyte and enter the uterus after the previous daughter is born. After the second daughter is born the male reproductive system become fully functional within the parent. All nutrition given to the developing oocyte is given through the uterus. They also do not have an egg shell that is normally created by vitelline cells. It is not known what exactly causes the birthing process, but after the birth of the daughter, she remains stationary while the mother moves to the anterior part of the host, most likely to ensure that there is no fertilization between mother and daughter. Once born, the parasite functions as an adult attaching to the same host as the parent and produces offspring 24 hours after its birth. In summary, every individual develops within its parent with no intermediate stage and is a fully functional adult upon birth.

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Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Benefits

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Gyrodactylus salaris can affect humans negatively by drastically decreasing the amount of Atlantic salmon. In Norway, it is calculated that they lose around 20 million Euros per year. Therefore, it hurts the economic value of these fisheries as well as depleting available food sources.

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Benefits

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Gyrodactylus salaris has no positive benefits for humans.

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Associations

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Gyrodactylus salaris is a parasite of freshwater fish and fish migrating from the ocean to and from freshwater. It is found on the skin and fins of Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, North American brook trout S. fontinalis, grayling Thymallus thymallus, North American lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, common whitefish Coregonus lavaretus, three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, common minnow Phoxinus phoxinus, ninespine Stickleback Pungitius pungitius, Solin Salmon Salmo obtusirostris, and brown trout Salmo trutta in their freshwater stage. They prefer to attach to the dorsal fin, pectoral fin, and anal fins in this sequential order. However, with increased density of Gyrodactylus salaris they are less selective and will attach to any area of open skin.

The disease resulting from its infections is gyrodactylosis, which has been reported to be responsible for the death of a wide variety of fish. Whatever the pathogenic mechanisms involved in gyrodactylosis are not known, but host mortality is probably due to the parasite.

Gyrodactylus salaris only feeds upon their hosts and do not affect the ecosystem in any other way except if they reduce their host's population.

Ecosystem Impact: parasite

Species Used as Host:

  • Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar
  • Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
  • Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus
  • North American brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis
  • Grayling, Thymallus thymallus
  • North American lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush
  • Brown trout, Salmo trutta
  • Common whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus
  • Three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus
  • Common minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus
  • Ninespine stickleback, Pungitius pungitius
  • Solin salmon, Salmo obtusirostris
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Trophic Strategy

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The adult stage of Gyrodactylus salaris feeds on the host’s skin, mucus, and fins. When they develop in their parent they receive nutrients from their parent as they develop into an adult.

Animal Foods: fish; body fluids

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Eats body fluids)

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Distribution

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The native range of Gyrodactylus salaris expands from the Baltic sea to the Karelian isthmus in Russia. Gyrodactylus salaris has also been introduced to the rivers surrounding the Baltic sea to the North, and northern Europe.

Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Introduced , Native )

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Habitat

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As an ectoparasite on fish, Gyrodactylus salaris is found in freshwater. While it infects fish that migrate to and from the ocean, G. salaris is intolerant of full strength seawater. It has been postulated that G. salaris is a coldwater adapted parasite. If G. salaris is not attached to a host, it is not parasitic and floats on the bottom sediment or anywhere in the water column, hoping to come into contact with a host.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; polar ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: pelagic ; benthic ; lakes and ponds; rivers and streams; coastal

Other Habitat Features: intertidal or littoral

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Life Expectancy

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The lifespan of Gyrodactylus salaris is temperature dependent. In colder temperatures it can attach to a dead host and survive to over 15 days. If not on a host the survival time is cut to 6 days.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
6 to 15 days.

Typical lifespan
Status: captivity:
6 to 15 days.

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Morphology

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Gyrodactylus salaris is a 0.5-1.0 mm long flat worm. As a monogean worm the dorsal side is usually convex and the ventral side concave. A monogean has three body regions: cephalic (anterior to pharynx) trunk (body) and penduncle (tapered end of body). This worm attaches to its host with an opisthaptor, which is an organ in the posterior region. Although usually colorless or grey, eggs or ingested food inside may make the worm appear red, pink, brown, yellow or black. Gyrodactylus salaris is hermaphroditic. Reproductively, it has an ovovitellarium, a fused mass of ova and vitelline cells. This species does not contain a vaginae, but has a birth pore.

All Gyrodactylus are essentially morphologically similar so they distinguish them by chaetotaxy and ribosomal RNA subunits as well as RNA internal transcribed spacers. Gyrodactylus salaris can be determined by using the oligonucleotide probe (GsV4) by performing polymerase chain reactions or PCR.

Average mass: 0.00025 g.

Range length: 0.5 to 1 mm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
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Associations

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Gyrodactylus salaris has no known predators and is difficult to control.

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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
original
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Reproduction

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Gyrodactylus salaris can reproduce both asexually and sexually. This species tends to lean towards asexual reproduction when the population density is low and sexual reproduction when the population density is high. There is no concrete information on the location and defending of mates but their mating behavior depends on the population size.

Gyrodactylus salaris reproduces all year long. Reproduction is reduced in the winter due to a decreased activity of its fish hosts which decrease its transmission and its availability to resources. All newborns are at first female and develop their male genitals later on in life. The first born daughter is born 24 hours after the birth of their parent. Gyrodactylus salaris only produces one offspring at a time. All daughters develop the same as the second daughter. When sexual reproduction is chosen one individual pierces the body of another individual with its hook, it inserts its penis and uses spines to stabilize itself while the cross-fertilization occurs. It then uses the sperm as well its already developing embryo to create an offspring that is genetically different from both parents and in this way ensures genetic variance within a population.

Breeding interval: This species produces throughout the year.

Range gestation period: 24 (low) hours.

Average gestation period: 24 hours.

Range time to independence: 0 to 0 minutes.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female or asexual): 0 to 0 minutes.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 0 to 0 minutes.

Key Reproductive Features: year-round breeding ; sequential hermaphrodite (Protogynous ); sexual ; asexual ; fertilization (External , Internal ); viviparous ; sperm-storing

All parental care occurs while the daughter is developing in the parent. They receive nutrients and grow until they are born in which they are left to defend for themselves.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; pre-fertilization (Provisioning); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning)

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The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Szczembara, A. 2011. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gyrodactylus_salaris.html
author
Andrew Szczembara, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Heidi Liere, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
John Marino, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Barry OConnor, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
editor
Renee Mulcrone, Special Projects
original
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Animal Diversity Web

Gyrodactylus salaris

provided by wikipedia EN

 src=
A warning sign in Scotland

Gyrodactylus salaris, commonly known as salmon fluke,[1] is a tiny monogenean ectoparasite which lives on the body surface of freshwater fish.[2] This leech-like parasite has been implicated in the reduction of Atlantic salmon populations in the Norwegian fjords.[3] It also parasitises other species, including rainbow trout.[4] G. salaris requires fresh water,[2] but can survive in brackish water for up to 18 hours.[5]

The parasite is 0.5 mm (0.02 in) long,[2] and cannot be seen with the naked eye, but it can be seen with a magnifying glass.[6] On its posterior end is a haptor, a specialized organ for attaching to the host fish, which has sixteen hooks around its edge.[2] The parasite is viviparous, that is, it produces live offspring.[7] The parasites give birth to live young nearly as big as themselves and at this time, a further generation is already growing inside the neonates.[4]

Interactions with host fish

When feeding, the parasite attaches its anterior end to the fish with cephalic glands. It everts its pharynx through the mouth and releases a digestive solution with proteolytic enzymes which dissolves the salmon skin. Mucus and dissolved skin are then sucked into the gut. Attachment of many parasites can cause large wounds, damaging the epidermis of the host fish, which allows secondary infections.[4]

History

G. salaris was first described in 1952,[8] after being removed from a Baltic strain[2] of Atlantic salmon kept at the Hölle Laboratory in Sweden, near to the river Indalsälv.[8] At the time, it was not thought to cause disease in the host fish.[8] The presence of G. salaris on fish became a World Organisation for Animal Health notifiable disease in 1983.[8]

Catastrophic losses of Atlantic salmon occurred in Norway in the 1970s following the introduction of G. salaris. By 2001, the salmon populations of 41 Norwegian rivers had been virtually wiped out in this way.[4]

Historically, Gyrodactylus-infected rivers have been treated with the indiscriminate pesticide/piscicide rotenone. A newer method of treatment employs dosing small volumes of aqueous aluminium and sulfuric acid into the river. A huge advantage of this method is its ability to kill the parasites without harming the hosts. This new method has shown promising results in Batnfjordelva and Lærdalselva, two rivers in Norway.[9]

References

  1. ^ Minchin, Dan (7 January 2008). "Gyrodactylus salaris" (PDF). DASIE: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 2017-11-05.
  2. ^ a b c d e Cain, Kenneth D.; Polinski, Mark P. (2014). "Chapter 3. Infectious diseases of coldwater fish in fresh water. Gyrodactylosis". In Woo, Patrick T.K.; Bruno, David W. (eds.). Diseases and disorders of finfish in cage culture (2nd ed.). CABI. pp. 95–96. ISBN 9781780642079.
  3. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Norwegian Sea. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  4. ^ a b c d "Notifiable diseases : Gyrodactylus salaris". Scottish Government. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 2017-11-05.
  5. ^ Hopkins, CCE (2002). "Introduced marine organisms in Norwegian waters, including Svalbard. Parasites and diseases". In Leppäkoski, Erkki; Gollasch, Stephan; Olenin, Sergej (eds.). Invasive Aquatic Species of Europe. Distribution, Impacts and Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. pp. 251–252. ISBN 9789401599566.
  6. ^ "Do not spread salmon parasite Gyrodactylus salaris" (PDF). Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
  7. ^ Shoemaker, Craig; Xu, De-Hai; LaFrentz, Benjamin; LaPatra, Scott (2015). "Chapter 1: Overview of fish immune system and infectious diseases. Monogenetic trematodes". In Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Lim, Chhorn; Gatlin, Delbert M. III; Webster, Carl D. (eds.). Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-470-96288-6.
  8. ^ a b c d Harris, Phil D.; Bachmann, Lutz; Bakke, Tor A. (2011). "The parasites and pathogens of the Atlantic salmon: Lessons from Gyrodactylus salaris". In Aas, Øystein; Klemetsen, Anders; Einum, Sigurd; Skurdal, Jostein (eds.). Atlantic Salmon Ecology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 221–244. ISBN 9781444348194.
  9. ^ Robinson JV, James AL (1975). "Some observations on the effects produced in white mice following the injection of certain suspensions of corroding bacilli". Br J Exp Pathol. 56 (1): 14–6. PMC 2072709. PMID 1080.
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Gyrodactylus salaris: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= A warning sign in Scotland

Gyrodactylus salaris, commonly known as salmon fluke, is a tiny monogenean ectoparasite which lives on the body surface of freshwater fish. This leech-like parasite has been implicated in the reduction of Atlantic salmon populations in the Norwegian fjords. It also parasitises other species, including rainbow trout. G. salaris requires fresh water, but can survive in brackish water for up to 18 hours.

The parasite is 0.5 mm (0.02 in) long, and cannot be seen with the naked eye, but it can be seen with a magnifying glass. On its posterior end is a haptor, a specialized organ for attaching to the host fish, which has sixteen hooks around its edge. The parasite is viviparous, that is, it produces live offspring. The parasites give birth to live young nearly as big as themselves and at this time, a further generation is already growing inside the neonates.

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Habitat

provided by World Register of Marine Species
G. salaris is relatively intolerant of high salinity. It may be found on salmon smolts in estuaries or fiordic environments around the mouths of salmon nursery rivers, but is very unlikely to be encountered in the open sea.
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