Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Macellicephala violacea (Levinsen, 1887)

Oligolepis violacea Levinsen, 1887:290, pl. 25: figs. 1–4.

Macellicephala violacea.—Wirén, 1901:253; 1907:289, pls. 1, 2.—Ditlevsen, 1917:39.

Macellicephala mirabilis.—Augener, 1933:206, fig. 1.—Uschakov, 1950:156, fig. 2; 1955:312; 1969a:2.—Chlebovitsch, 1964: 168.—Levenstein, 1971b:21, figs. 2–4; 1973:129, 130, 131, 133.—Fauchald, 1974:9 [not McIntosh, 1885].

Macellicephala (Macellicephala) violacea.—Hartmann-Schröder, 1974:76.

MATERIAL EXAMINED.—Kara Sea, sta. 14, 1931, 1 specimen (ZIASL 5981; as M. mirabilis by Uschakov, 1950).

Barents Sea, Willem Barents Expedition in 1878–1879, 2 specimens (RNHL 377). 72° 14′08″N,22′30′09″E, 283.5 m, clay with stones; Fourth “Willem Barents” Expedition, sta. 9, 30 June 1891, 1 specimen (RNHL; as M. mirabilis by Augener, 1933).

Spitsbergen, Klas Bellen Bay, Swedish Spitsbergen Expedition in 1908, sta. 101, 14 August 1908, 1 specimen (ZIUU).

NE Greenland, mouth of Franz Josef Fjord, 200–300 m, mud, Swedish Zoological Polar Expedition in 1900, sta. 25, 14 August 1900, 4 specimens (ZIUU; reported by Wirén, 1901, 1907).

Western Norway, Hardangerfjorden, Indre Samlafjorden, off Hesthamar, 60°26′05″N, 06°33′50″E, 210–250 m, fine and coarse sand, few rocks, sta. 67–56, 24 August 1956, 1 specimen (ZMUB). Sörfjorden, between Kvitno and Melland, 60° 10′ 48″N, 06°33′48″E, 396 m, sta. ZF 63, 9 May 1957, 1 specimen (ZMUB). Sörfjorden, east of Kvitno-Måge, 60°11′N, 06°54′E, 390 m, soft bottom, sta. 30–63, 12 June 1963, 1 specimen (ZMUB). Sörfjorden, outer part between Eidnes and Kjeken, 60°20′30″N, 06°38′40″E, 360–340 m, mud, sta. 6–64, 20 August 1964, 1 specimen (ZMUB). Eidfjorden, South of Vangsbygd, 60°28′55″N, 06°51′18″E, 460–454 m, sta. 8–65, 19 August 1965, 1 specimen (ZMUB) (as M. mirabilis by Fauchald, 1974).

Kurile Kamchatka Trench, 44°07′N, 149°34′E, 6135 m, Vitiaz sta. 5633, 1 specimen (USNM 51973; exchange from IOASM; as M. mirabilis by Levenstein, 1971b).

DESCRIPTION.—Largest specimen from Barents Sea (RNHL 377) 40 mm long, 20 mm wide with parapodia, 30 mm wide with setae, segments 18. Largest specimen from Western Norway (ZMUB) 17 mm long, 7 mm wide with para podia, 11 mm wide with setae, segments 18. Two elytra on specimen from Barents Sea (RNHL 377) large (probably covering dorsum), oval, soft, smooth, without tubercles or papillae (according to Levinsen, elytra minute, not covering middorsum). Dorsal tubercles on most of cirrigerous segments distinct, digitform to subcorncal (Figures 3c,g, 4d,g). Narrower anterior lobes of prostomium with minute frontal filaments, sometimes partially withdrawn (Figures 3a–d,f). Median antenna with style long, with subterminal enlargement and filamentous tip. Palps about same length or shorter than median antenna. Dorsal and ventral tentacular cirri subequal in length, slightly shorter than median antenna (Figure 3c; Wirén, 1907, pl. 1: fig. 3). Trilobed facial tubercle medial to bases of palps (Figure 3b,e,f).

Parapodia typical (Figures 3c,g, 4a,d,g; Wirén, 1907, pl. 2: figs. 1,2). Notosetae moderate in number, stouter than neurosetae, clear, fragile, smooth or with faint indications of spinous rows, with blunt tips (Figure 4b,e; Levinsen, 1887, pl. 25: fig. 4S; Wirén, 1907, pl. 1: fig. 7). Neurosetae flattened, needle-like, clear or with faint indications of spinous rows along one side, distally tapering rather abruptly to slightly hooked tips (Figure 4c,f; Levinsen, 1887, pl. 25: fig. 4i; Wirén, 1907, pl. 1: figs. 5,6).

Dorsal cirri with styles variable in length (mostly missing), tapering gradually to filamentous tips (Figure 3c,g). Reduced parapodia of segment 18, lateral to pygidium, consisting of large dorsal cirrophores, notopodia with notosetae, and ventral cirri; neuropodia lacking (Figure 3g). Nephridial papillae large on segments 10, 11 and 12 (Figure 4g). Body smooth, not papillate.

DISTRIBUTION.—Widely distributed in Arctic: Kara, Laptev, Barents and Greenland Seas, Franz Josef Land, Spitsbergen, Jan Mayen, NE Iceland, Western Norway, Aleutian and Kurile-Kamchatka Trenches, Okhotsk Sea, in 46 to 8400 meters.
bibliographic citation
Pettibone, Marian H. 1976. "Revision of the genus Macellicephala McIntosh and the subfamily Macellicephalinae Hartmann-SchrAder (Polychaeta: Polynoidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-71. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.229