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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 27.2 years (wild) Observations: Most animals breed when 3-4 years of age, but some have been known to breed after 8 months. The oldest banded bird was 27.2 years (http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/BBL/homepage/longvrec.htm). Others have suggested a life expectancy of at least 30 years and possibly up to 50 years. Annual adult mortality has been reported to be around 3.3%-7.7% (http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/).
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Behavior

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There has only been one study on the various calls of brown boobies. The results of that study suggest vocalizations are used for several different functions, including greeting mates, aggression, and chicks begging for food. Colonies as a whole are generally not noisy, as more communication is done through behavior. Males and females use vocalizations in different ways. Males emit a series of soft whistles while females are responsible for harsh quacking or honking. These sounds become more pronounced whenever they are faced with possible intrusion from another bird. Males calls become harsher and are held for longer while females emit a sound known as a “roar-call”. This is an emphatic shout that is intended to warn the intruder to stay away from the nest. When these birds greet their mates as they return from hunting, they use their typical sounds. However, these calls are made softly while still far out and tend to get louder as they approach the nest.

Hatchlings have their own range of sounds, starting with peeping while still in the egg. While very young there seems to be no discernible pattern to the food call, it is just a range of the noises they are able to make. As they get older it takes on a loud, raspy, repetitive craa-craaaa.

Most communication is accomplished through behaviors rather than sounds. An example of aggressive behavior will be seen mostly when claiming or maintaining breed sites. Aggressive behaviors are directed towards other birds as well as inanimate objects (shrubs or rocks). When performing aggressive behaviors against other birds, brown boobies hop towards the intruder with their neck and head stretched forward. When they get closer they bow and usually emit a honk. If the intruder does not back down the defending booby will perform a more exaggerated bow. If the intruder still doesn’t back down, then the territory owner may rattle its bill towards the intruder. This can escalate to bill jabbing with a downward slap of the wings. Sometimes the defender will grab onto others bill or neck.

Only males have been observed performing mating behaviors, which include sky-pointing and parading. Sky-pointing is done when a female first approaches. The male will stand up and throw his head into the air with neck stretched out as far as it can go. This is usually accompanied by a unique whistle. This ritual is slightly different from the other booby species as it doesn’t involve a use of the wings. Parading is really just an exaggerated form of walking. The body posture is unusually erect with an exaggerated sway. Other behaviors that are thought to reinforce pair bonding are mutual preening, bill touching, and bowing. Mutual preening is where each pair bond will clean the other’s feathers. Bill touching is done whenever mates return to their own territory after bowing. It has been noted that the mate reentering the territory will make their arrival call and then perform a slight bow (similar to bow described in aggressive behavior) unless the bird reentering is flying in and its partner is on a nest. In which case that bird will perform a seated bow. This action is thought to be a form of greeting.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

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Brown boobies are not considered endangered at this time and no programs promoting their conservation are in progress. Brown booby populations are considered globally stable currently.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Benefits

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There are no known adverse effects of Sula leucogaster on humans.

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Benefits

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According to Spennemann (1999), at the turn of the 20th century brown booby feathers were in high demand from the European and American fashion industry. These feathers were used to adorn women's hats and the "take" of such feathers led to 2 million bird deaths (not all Sula leucogaster). This demand has since died down and regulations are in place to prevent over-harvesting for the fashion industry or any other products. Several countries (e.g., Japan and Madagascar) are turning to ecotourism as a source of income and have set aside several islands with very strict regulations to preserve the natural environment. Ichiki (2003) reports that the draw of ecotourism comes from tourists wanting to see animals in their natural environment. Conveniently, brown boobies nest on these protected islands (e.g., Ogasawara Islands, Japan) and its presence be another selling point for tourists with an interest in bird-watching.

Positive Impacts: body parts are source of valuable material; ecotourism

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Associations

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Richardson (2006) report that the presence of seabird nesting colonies (including Sula leucogaster on islands increases the productivity of certain trees (like mangroves) more than islands without nesting colonies. Recently, this species, Sula leucogaster, has been found to be one of the many contributing factors (along with all other nesting seabird colonies) to eutrophication of the surrounding waters of the islands they inhabit. Their nutrient-rich feces causes lower species diversity and greater dominance of mostly epiphytic biota but also macro-algae and phytoplankton. The rapid growth of the epiphytes blanket the sea grass beds and eventually causes them to die from lack of sunlight. Any organism in the area that depended on the sea grass that is unable to accommodate the change will soon die after it. However, no studies have examined direct effects of eutrophication on the nesting sea birds from presumed declines in fish in the surrounding water.

Brown boobies are also host to the parasite Babesia poelea. Work and Rameyer's (1997) research pointed to the possibility that avian piroplasms may be species specific and be transmitted by argasid ticks (Carios maritimus).

Ecosystem Impact: biodegradation ; parasite

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • argasid ticks (Babesia poelea)
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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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Brown boobies eat mainly fish. They consume most species of fish that are from 5 to 40 cm in length. Observed prey include flying fish (Exocoetus species), goat fish (Mullidae), squirrelfish (Sargocentron diadema), mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), and ommastrephid squid (Ommastrephidae).

To acquire food, brown boobies use mainly plunge-diving. This is where they rise to 10 to 12 m above the water to search for prey before angling the body in such a way that it can enter the water as smoothly as possible. This position changes throughout the dive, starting with the initial descent. At the time of the descent the wings are folded in tightly next to the body, then thrust straight out over their back (prior to entering water) until their wings are touching over the center of their back. Depending on their altitude prior to diving, they are able to submerge themselves up to 2 m deep. They have also been known to pursue prey underwater using a combination of feet and wing motions.

Along with plunge-diving, some fledglings (about 1 in 100) and some adults (1 in 500) practice kleptoparasitism, where they steal prey from other seabirds. For example, brown boobies have been observed stealing prey from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor) as they transfer food to their young. It is thought that fledgling frigatebird calls for food are what attracts boobies.

Animal Foods: fish; mollusks

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Molluscivore )

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Brown boobies, Sula leucogaster, are common residents of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The distribution is described as pantropical, between latitudes 30 degrees North and 30 degrees South, though it extends to about 34 degrees South in the central Pacific. Brown boobies occur in the Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, and the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They also inhabit seas north of Australia. The subspecies Sula leucogaster brewslei and Sula leucogaster etesiaca live along the Pacific coast of Mexico and the Pacific coast of Central and South America, respectively.

Although brown boobies may have historically inhabited the Florida Keys, clear evidence is lacking. Tropical storms occasionally blow individuals of this species well outside of their typical geographic boundaries - such an example is the October 2008 observation of a lone Sula leucogaster at Claytor Lake (Pulaski County) in southwestern (interior) Virginia.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native ); australian (Native ); oceanic islands (Native ); indian ocean (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Brown boobies use coral atolls and volcanic stack islands for nesting in tropical or subtropical waters. When faced with little or no competition for space, they prefer wide open spaces at sea level. They have, however, been found on cliffs and hillsides.

Range elevation: 0 to 15 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Adult mortality per year has been reported to be between 3.3 and 7.7%. The maximum known lifespan in the wild is 27.2 years. There have been no studies to document average lifespans in the wild or captivity.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
27.2 (high) years.

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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Adult feather coloration is similar between sexes. There are small differences among males of the subspecies S. leucogaster brewslei and S. leucogaster etesiaca. Generally brown boobies have dark brown heads, necks, and backs with bright white underbellies. A sharp line separates the lower breast where the brown fades to white. The under wings are mostly white except for a variable dark bar that is relatively narrow and extends from armpit to carpal joints. The subspecies mentioned earlier tend to have a light gray to white head that gradually turns brown at the neck. Overall their necks and upper backs are darker than other Sula leucogaster subspecies. Juveniles have no documented differences between sexes or subspecies. But are generally a brownish color on their head, neck, and back with a noticeable band across the lower breast which leads to the mottled brown and whitish underparts (underparts gradually attain full white color over first 2 years). The under wing-coverts (feathers that cover the bases of the quill feathers) are generally gray, which contrast significantly with the rest of the under wing. Adult soft part colors vary slightly between males and females, with no documented variation among subspecies. Males have gray-blue to steely-blue skin around the eyes and yellow to bright yellow skin at base of mandible. Females are much the same, except for face skin that is always bright yellow. In both genders the bills and feet range in color from bright yellow, bluish yellow, greenish yellow, light-pink, and gray.

Overall distinguishing booby species isn’t difficult, but juvenile red-footed boobies (Sula sula) look remarkably similar to juvenile brown boobies. Overall length ranges from 64 to 85 cm, with females on average being a few cm longer. Their wingspan is in the range of 132 to 155 cm. There is a slight difference in weight between sexes, with females usually weighing about 300 g heavier. The ranges for males are 950 to 1700 g and for females is 1000 to 1800 g.

Range mass: 950 to 1800 g.

Average mass: 1300 g.

Range length: 64 to 85 cm.

Range wingspan: 132 to 155 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger; sexes colored or patterned differently

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Associations

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Sally lightfoot crabs (Grapsus grapsus) are the only known predators of brown booby hatchlings. While these crabs mostly forage around nesting sites picking up feathers, egg shells, dead chicks, and dry bird excrement, they will on very rare occasions prey on recently hatched chicks that have been expelled from the nest. In these cases, adult birds do nothing to protect their young from the crabs and the crabs have never been seen going into the nests after a solitary chick. Brown booby young may also be preyed on by larger seabirds and nesting colonies may be threatened by introduced predators, such as rats, cats, and pigs.

Known Predators:

  • Sally Lightfoot crabs (Grapsus grapsus)
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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

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Brown boobies are monogamous. Males are the only gender observed performing mating behaviors, including sky-pointing and parading. In sky-pointing, when a female first approaches, the male will stand up and throw his head into the air with neck stretched out as far as it can go. This is usually accompanied by a unique whistle. This ritual is slightly different from the other booby species, as it doesn’t involve a use of the wings. Parading is just an exaggerated form of walking, in which body posture is unusually erect with an exaggerated sway. Other behaviors that are thought to reinforce pair bonding are mutual preening, bill touching, and bowing. Mutual preening is where each pair bond will clean the other’s feathers. Bill touching is done whenever mates return to their own territory after bowing. It has been noted that the mate reentering the territory will make their arrival call and then perform a slight bow (similar to the bow described in aggressive behavior) unless the bird reentering is flying in and its partner is on a nest, in which case that bird will perform a seated bow. This is thought to be a form of greeting.

Mating System: monogamous

Brown booby breeding season is dependent upon food availability. Events such as El Nino can drastically shift normal breeding season for a few years. In the Caribbean and east Pacific, peak breeding months are December to February. In the central Pacific, the breeding season lasts from December to March, but it's not uncommon to find them breeding year round. In Hawaii brown boobies breed from March to May. After eggs are laid, parents take turns incubating for 42 days. Usually brown boobies lay 2 eggs but only raise one chick past the fledgling stage. It is thought that having a second egg is for insurance purposes, in case one egg doesn't make it. The first chick hatches about 2 to 4 days before the second. This chick will then push the other young from the nest with no interference from either parent. The expelled chick will usually die from heat exposure, lack of food, or predation. The surviving chick will continue to be cared for in the pre-fledgling stage for close to 100 days, during which time both parents continue to feed and protect it. In the post-fledgling stage, it is not uncommon for young birds to go out on their own to learn how to hunt and socialize and then return to their parents nest to be fed. This sort of behavior has been observed up to a year after reaching post-fledgling stage, but it typically lasts 50 days. This variability is thought to be the result of food availability.

Breeding interval: Brown boobies breed once yearly.

Breeding season: Brown booby breeding times vary across the world, with most breeding occuring from December to March, although breeding may be year-round in some areas.

Range eggs per season: 1 to 3.

Range time to hatching: 40 to 47 days.

Average time to hatching: 42 days.

Range fledging age: 96 to 120 days.

Average fledging age: 100 days.

Range time to independence: 42 to 365 days.

Average time to independence: 50 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 240 (low) days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1278 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 240 (low) days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1278 days.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); oviparous

Both male and female brown boobies incubate the eggs. Time on the nest is split evenly, with varying amount of hours per sitting. Once eggs hatch, both parents participate in feeding the young. There are no records about which gender feeds more often. When chick gets older and bigger the parents might roost away from nest but will often return to defend their nest territory and chick. This pre-fledgling care can continue up to 100 days. Post-fledgling care can vary from 42 days up to 259 days with rare occurrences of juveniles returning to parents nest up to a year after to beg for food. This factor is thought to be controlled by local fishing conditions. If food is plentiful and easy for juveniles to catch and learn how to hunt efficiently, then it will be shorter. There have been no documented cases of adult brown boobies showing post-fledgling chicks how to dive or hunt. However, in an experiment by Yoda et al. (2007), hand-raised chicks were often much slower to reach peak diving levels than chicks raised by parents.

Parental Investment: altricial ; male parental care ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); extended period of juvenile learning

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Langteau, J. 2011. "Sula leucogaster" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sula_leucogaster.html
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Jason Langteau, Radford University
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Karen Francl, Radford University
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Tanya Dewey, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Status in Egypt

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Resident breeder.

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Adult and immature descriptions

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Adult Description Large, dark waterbird. Long body, long neck, long tail. Narrow, pointed wings. Brown head, throat, chest, and upperparts. White belly, vent, and wing linings Immature Description Juvenile is brown overall; belly ranges from mottled brown and white to mostly dark. Sharp line still visible between darker chest and lighter belly. Underwing coverts are pale. Bare parts generally dull gray.
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Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster). The Cornell Lab of Ornithology All About Birds. http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Brown_Booby/id. Accessed 27 Jan 2014.
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J Medby (jamiemedby)
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Aerial dive

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Plunge-dives from various heights up to 15 m (50 feet). Folds wings next to body at beginning of dive, then thrusts wings straight out over back, touching in the middle, just before breaking the surface. Dive may reach just below surface, or to as much as 2 m (6 feet) deep. Commonly feeds in areas where large predatory fish such as tuna drive smaller fish to the surface. Also follows fishing vessels
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Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster). The Cornell Lab of Ornithology All About Birds. http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Brown_Booby/lifehistory. Accessed 27 Jan 2014.
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Cool facts

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A widespread seabird of tropical waters, the Brown Booby ranges as far north as the Gulf of California, and rarely to both coasts of the United States. Like other boobies, it feeds with spectacular plunges into the sea. The Brown Booby is the only ground-nesting booby that regularly builds a substantial nest. Like all boobies and pelicans, the Brown Booby's feet are "totipalmate," having webbing connecting all four toes. Brown Booby nests sometimes contain the bodies of dead Sooty Tern chicks. Male and female Brown Boobies generally look alike in plumage color, except in populations found along the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Central and South America. There the females look like those in other populations, but the males have light gray to white heads.
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Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster). The Cornell Lab of Ornithology All About Birds. http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Brown_Booby/lifehistory. Accessed 27 Jan 2014.
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Brown booby

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The brown booby (Sula leucogaster) is a large seabird of the booby family, Sulidae, of which it is perhaps the most common and widespread species.[3] It has a pantropical range, which overlaps with that of other booby species. The gregarious brown booby commutes and forages at low height over inshore waters. Flocks plunge-dive to take small fish, especially when these are driven near the surface by their predators. They only nest on the ground, and roost on solid objects rather than the water surface.[3]

Taxonomy

The brown booby was described by the French polymath Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon in his Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux in 1781.[4] The bird was also illustrated in a hand-coloured plate engraved by François-Nicolas Martinet in the Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle which was produced under the supervision of Edme-Louis Daubenton to accompany Buffon's text.[5] Buffon did not include a scientific name with his description but in 1783 the Dutch naturalist Pieter Boddaert coined the binomial name Pelecanus leucogaster in his catalogue of the Planches Enluminées.[6] The type locality is Cayenne in French Guiana.[7] The current genus Sula was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760.[8] The word Sula is Norwegian for a gannet; the specific leucogaster is from Ancient Greek leuko for "white" and gastēr for "belly".[9]

There are four recognised subspecies:[10]

  • S. l. leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783) – Caribbean and Atlantic Islands
  • S. l. brewsteri Nathaniel Stickney Goss, 1888 – Pacific coasts of USA and Mexico
  • S. l. etesiaca Thayer & Bangs, 1905 – Pacific coasts of Central America and Colombia
  • S. l. plotus (Forster, JR, 1844) – Red Sea through the Indian Ocean to the west and central Pacific[11]

Description

The booby's head and upper body (back) is covered in dark brown to black plumage, with the remainder (belly) being a contrasting white. The bare part colours vary geographically, but not seasonally.[3] The species also displays sexual dimorphism of the bare part colours, the males having a blue orbital ring, as opposed to the yellow orbital ring of the female. In addition the male of subspecies S. l. brewsteri is distinctly plumaged in having the forehead, forecrown and chin white, merging to a greyish brown neck and breast.[3]

The female booby reaches about 80 centimetres (31 in) in length, her wingspan measures up to 150 cm (4.9 ft), and she can weigh up to 1,300 g (2.9 lb). The male booby reaches about 75 centimetres (30 in) in length, his wingspan measures up to 140 cm (4.6 ft), and he can weigh up to 1,000 g (2.2 lb).[12]

Unlike other species of sulid the juvenile plumage already resembles that of the adult.[3] They are gray-brown with darkening on the head, upper surfaces of the wings and tail, while the lower breast and underpart plumages are heavily flecked brown on white. Juveniles of subspecies S. l. brewsteri are once again distinct in having the underpart plumage more evenly mouse brown.[3]

Their beaks are quite sharp and contain many jagged edges. They have fairly short wings resulting in a fast flap rate, but long, tapered tails. While these birds are typically silent, bird watchers have reported occasional sounds similar to grunting or quacking.

Ecology

This species breeds on islands and coasts in the pantropical areas of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. They frequent the breeding grounds of the islands in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. With the rise in pollution in the world, brown boobies have been using marine debris to make their nests. 90.1 percent of these nest were consisted of plastic, while nests near shipwreck have a high percentage of the wreckage debris.[13] This bird nests in large colonies, laying two chalky blue eggs on the ground in a mound of broken shells and vegetation, but usually raises just one chick, the second one to hatch being unable to compete for food with its older sibling, or even ejected from the nest by it.[14] It winters at sea over a wider area.

Brown booby pairs may remain together over several seasons. They perform elaborate greeting rituals, and are also spectacular divers, plunging into the ocean at high speed. They mainly eat small fish or squid which gather in groups near the surface and may catch leaping fish while skimming the surface. Although they are powerful and agile fliers, they are particularly clumsy in takeoffs and landings; they use strong winds and high perches to assist their takeoffs.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Sula leucogaster Boddaert 1783 (brown booby)". PBDB.
  2. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Sula leucogaster". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22696698A132590197. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22696698A132590197.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Harrison, Peter (1985). Seabirds: An Identification Guide (revised ed.). Houghton Mifflin. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-395-60291-1.
  4. ^ Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc de (1781). "Le Petit Fou". Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux (in French). Vol. 16. Paris: De L'Imprimerie Royale. p. 142.
  5. ^ Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc de; Martinet, François-Nicolas; Daubenton, Edme-Louis; Daubenton, Louis-Jean-Marie (1765–1783). "Fou de Cayenne". Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle. Vol. 10. Paris: De L'Imprimerie Royale. Plate 973.
  6. ^ Boddaert, Pieter (1783). Table des planches enluminéez d'histoire naturelle de M. D'Aubenton : avec les denominations de M.M. de Buffon, Brisson, Edwards, Linnaeus et Latham, precedé d'une notice des principaux ouvrages zoologiques enluminés (in French). Utrecht. p. 57, Number 973.
  7. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 186.
  8. ^ Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie, ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés (in French and Latin). Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. Vol. 1, p. 60,Vol. 6 p. 494.
  9. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 223, 373. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  10. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Hamerkop, Shoebill, pelicans, boobies & cormorants". World Bird List Version 7.3. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2017-11-05.
  11. ^ Redman, Nigel; Stevenson, Terry; Fanshawe, John (2016). Birds of the Horn of Africa: Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, and Socotra – Revised and Expanded Edition. Princeton Field Guides. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-691-17289-7. OCLC 944380248. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  12. ^ Ospina-Alvarez, A. (2008). "Coloniality of brown booby (Sula leucogaster) in Gorgona National Natural Park, Eastern Tropical Pacific" (PDF). Onitología Neotropical. 19: 517–529.
  13. ^ Grant, L.M.; Lavers, J.L.; Stuckenbrock, S.; Sharp, B.P.; Bond, A.L. (2018). "The use of anthropogenic marine debris as a nesting material by brown boobies (Sula leucogaster)". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 137: 96–103. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.10.016. hdl:10141/622420. PMID 30503494.
  14. ^ Dorward, D.F. (1962). "Comparative biology of the white booby and the brown booby Sula spp. at Ascension". Ibis. 103B (2): 174–220. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1962.tb07244.x.
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Brown booby: Brief Summary

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The brown booby (Sula leucogaster) is a large seabird of the booby family, Sulidae, of which it is perhaps the most common and widespread species. It has a pantropical range, which overlaps with that of other booby species. The gregarious brown booby commutes and forages at low height over inshore waters. Flocks plunge-dive to take small fish, especially when these are driven near the surface by their predators. They only nest on the ground, and roost on solid objects rather than the water surface.

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Description

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Length: 64-74 cm. Colour: adult sooty-brown above, on head, neck and breast; belly and undertail coverts white; underwing white except for dark brown leading and trailing edges and tip; bill yellow to greenish grey with pink or blue tip; facial skin yellow to greenish; legs and feet yellow to greenish; immature like adult but with brown wash on underparts; bill and face grey. Habitat: shallow waters around oceanic islands. (<313><316><318>)
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bibliographic citation
Brown, L.H., E.K. Urban & K. Newman. (1982). The Birds of Africa, Volume I. <em>Academic Press, London.</em> van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
Lorna Depew [email]
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Lorna Depew [email]

Distribution

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circum-(sub)tropical
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bibliographic citation
Brown, L.H., E.K. Urban & K. Newman. (1982). The Birds of Africa, Volume I. <em>Academic Press, London.</em> van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]
contributor
Jacob van der Land [email]