dcsimg
Image of Neopetrosia subtriangularis (Duchassaing 1850)
Creatures » » Animals » Sponges » Demosponges » » Petrosiidae »

Neopetrosia subtriangularis (Duchassaing 1850)

Neopetrosia subtriangularis

provided by wikipedia EN

Neopetrosia subtriangularis is a species of marine petrosiid sponges native to the waters off Florida and the Caribbean Sea. They superficially resemble staghorn corals.

Taxonomy

Neopetrosia subtriangularis was originally described by the French naturalist Édouard Placide Duchassaing de Fontbressin in 1850 as Spongia subtriangularis.[2] It is classified under the genus Neopetrosia of the family Petrosiidae in the order Haplosclerida.[1]

Description

Neopetrosia subtriangularis superficially resemble the staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) in appearance. They form clusters of interconnecting solid branches that tend to sprawl along the substrate (repent),[3] though these branches may sometimes be solitary (arising from a flattened base) and erect.[4]

The branches are brown, beige, yellow or orange in coloration on the external surfaces, though they may possess a greenish tinge. Internal surfaces are tan to off-white in coloration.[5] They are usually around 28 cm (11 in) long and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) wide and may be laterally flattened.[3] In the Bahamas, the individual branches tend to be wider, around 3 to 5 cm (1.2 to 2.0 in), than in other areas where they average at 1 to 2 cm (0.39 to 0.79 in).[6] They are hard in consistency, but are brittle and easily break off. The surface of the branches are smooth and flat.[5]

The openings (oscules) are round and 2 to 4 mm (0.079 to 0.157 in) in diameter, usually surrounded by a rim of paler colored (usually white or yellow) membrane. They may be located flush on the surface or elevated in small conical chimneys, around 1.3 cm (0.51 in) tall. They are distributed regularly on the upper surface of the branches, forming neat rows. Individual oscules may sometimes fuse together to form a crest.[3][5] The spicules are curved cylinders, with pointed (oxea) or rounded (strongyloxea) tips at both ends.[5]

Ecology

Neopetrosia subtriangularis are found in shallow reefs and seagrass beds at depths of greater than 3 m (9.8 ft). Especially in the turbid waters of sand channels.[7] They serve as hosts of colonies of the eusocial snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus.[8][9]

Distribution

Neopetrosia subtriangularis is found off the east and west coasts of Florida, the Bahamas, and throughout the entire Caribbean Sea.[3][5]

References

  1. ^ a b c van Soest, R. (2014). Van Soest RW, Boury-Esnault N, Hooper JN, Rützler K, de Voogd NJ, de Glasby BA, Hajdu E, Pisera AB, Manconi R, Schoenberg C, Janussen D, Tabachnick KR, Klautau M, Picton B, Kelly M, Vacelet J (eds.). "Neopetrosia subtriangularis (Duchassaing, 1850)". World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  2. ^ Duchassaing de Fontbressin, Édouard Placide (1850). Animaux radiaires des Antilles. Plon Frères. pp. 1–35.
  3. ^ a b c d Freeman, Chris. "Neopetrosia subtriangularis (Duchassaing, 1850)". LifeDesks. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
  4. ^ Sheppard, Charles. "Xestospongia subtriangularis (Duchassaing 1850)". Coralpedia v 1.0: A guide to Caribbean corals, octocorals and sponges, University of Warwick. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d e Messing, Charles G.; Bangalore, Purushotham V.; Diaz, Maria Cristina; Freeman, Christopher J.; Kohler, Kevin E.; Reed, John K.; Ruetzler, Klaus; Thacker, Robert W.; van Soest, Rob; Wulff, Janie; Zea, Sven. "Xestospongia subtriangularis (Duchassaing 1850)". South Florida Sponges: A Guide to Identification, The Porifera Tree of Life Project. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
  6. ^ Zea, Sven; Henkel, Timothy P.; Pawlik, Joseph R. (2009). "Neopetrosia subtriangularis". The Sponge Guide: a picture guide to Caribbean sponges, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
  7. ^ Diaz, M.C. "Neopetrosia subtriangularis (Duchassaing, 1850)". Bocas del Toro: Species Database, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
  8. ^ Duffy, J. Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S., III; Hultgren, Kristin M.; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R. (2013). "Decline and Local Extinction of Caribbean Eusocial Shrimp". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e54637. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054637. PMC 3572134. PMID 23418429.
  9. ^ Hultgren, Kristin M.; MacDonald, Kenneth S.,III; Duffy, J. Emmett (2011). "Sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps (Alpheidae: Synalpheus) of Barbados, West Indies, with a description of a new eusocial species" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2834: 1–16. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2834.1.1.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Neopetrosia subtriangularis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Neopetrosia subtriangularis is a species of marine petrosiid sponges native to the waters off Florida and the Caribbean Sea. They superficially resemble staghorn corals.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN