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Biology

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Unlike most corals within the family Dendrophyllidae, Turbinaria peltata is zooxanthellate. Zooxanthellate corals live in symbiosis with unicellular algae known as zooxanthellae, which are essential to their growth and survival. Protected within the coral tissue, the algae provide their hosts with nutrients and energy, whilst also helping to remove metabolic wastes. The cost of this symbiosis is that zooxanthellate corals are constrained to live in relatively shallow waters where the algae are able to photosynthesise (3). All Turbinaria species breed during the autumn in falling sea temperatures. Unlike most corals which are hermaphroditic (3), Turbinaria have separate male and female sexes, and probably release gametes for external fertilisation (4).
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Conservation

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In addition to being listed on Appendix II of CITES, which makes it an offence to trade Turbinaria reniformis without a permit, this coral falls within several Marine Protected Areas across its range. To specifically conserve Turbinaria reniformis, recommendations have been made for a raft of studies into various aspects of its taxonomy, biology and ecology, including an assessment of threats and potential recovery techniques (1).
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Description

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Turbinaria reniformis is a reef-building coral that forms colonies of mostly horizontal, overlapping plates that can grow over one metre in diameter. Each colony is comprised of numerous widely spaced polyps. The overall colour of Turbinaria reniformis is usually yellow-green (3).
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Habitat

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Found at depths of 2 to 15 metres, sometimes forming large stands in turbid water on fringing reefs (1) (3).
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Range

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Turbinaria reniformis is distributed widely in shallow waters of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific (1).
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Status

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Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (2).
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Threats

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Around one third of the world's reef building corals are threatened with extinction (5). The principal threat to corals is the rise in sea temperature associated with global climate change. This leads to coral bleaching, where the symbiotic algae are expelled, leaving the corals weak and vulnerable to an increasing variety of harmful diseases. Climate change is also expected to increase ocean acidification and result in a greater frequency of extreme weather events such as destructive storms. This is not too mention the localised threats to coral reefs from pollution, destructive fishing practices, invasive species, human development, and other activities (1) (5). Although Turbinaria reniformis is still relatively widespread and common in parts of its range, evidence of an overall global decline in coral habitat is an indication that this species is almost certainly declining (1).
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Turbinaria reniformis

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Turbinaria reniformis, commonly known as yellow scroll coral, is a species of colonial stony coral in the family Dendrophylliidae. It is native to the Indo-Pacific region. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being "vulnerable".[1]

Description

Turbinaria reniformis is a laminar species, forming horizontal plates or shallow chalices, and sometimes forming tiers. The corallites (skeletal cups in which the polyps sit) are widely separated and are only on the upper side of the plates. The corallites are 1.5 to 2 mm (0.06 to 0.08 in) in diameter, have thick walls and are either sunk into the coenosteum (skeletal tissue) or are conical in shape. This coral has a distinct rim free of corallites, and is usually a yellowish-green colour.[2]

Distribution

Turbinaria reniformis has a very wide distribution with a range extending from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, through the Indian Ocean, the central Indo-Pacific, to northern Australia, southern Japan, the South China Sea and island groups in the West and Central Pacific.[1]

Ecology

Turbinaria reniformis is a zooxanthellate coral. It lives in symbiosis with unicellular dinoflagellates known as zooxanthellae. These photosynthetic protists provide their host coral with nutrients and energy, but in order to benefit from this, the coral needs to live in relatively shallow water and in a brightly lit position. In conditions of thermal stress, the coral may expel the zooxanthellae, become bleached and ultimately die. It has been found that when the surrounding sea water is moderately enriched with nitrogen, the coral can better withstand thermal stress and retain its zooxanthellae.[3]

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Turbinaria reniformis

T. reniformis is gonochoristic, with colonies being either male or female. Breeding takes place synchronously with all the colonies in an area liberating their gametes into the sea about a week after the full moon in November.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c Hoeksema, B.W.; Rogers, A.; Quibilan, M.C. (2014). "Turbinaria reniformis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T133697A54306914. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T133697A54306914.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b Hoeksema, B. (2015). "Turbinaria reniformis Bernard, 1896". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2015-04-18.
  3. ^ Béraud, Eric; Gevaert, François; Rottier, Cécile; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine (2013). "The response of the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis to thermal stress depends on the nitrogen status of the coral holobiont". Journal of Experimental Biology. 216: 2665–2674. doi:10.1242/jeb.085183. PMID 23531826.
  4. ^ Richmond,Robert H.; Hunter, Cynthia L. (1990). "Reproduction and recruitment of corals: comparisons among the Caribbean, the Tropical Pacific, and the Red Sea" (PDF). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 60: 185–203. doi:10.3354/meps060185.
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Turbinaria reniformis: Brief Summary

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Turbinaria reniformis, commonly known as yellow scroll coral, is a species of colonial stony coral in the family Dendrophylliidae. It is native to the Indo-Pacific region. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being "vulnerable".

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Turbinaria reniformis

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Turbinaria reniformis est une espèce de scléractiniaires (coraux durs).

Voir aussi

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Turbinaria reniformis: Brief Summary

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Turbinaria reniformis est une espèce de scléractiniaires (coraux durs).

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Biology

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zooxanthellate
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bibliographic citation
Veron JEN. (1986). Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. <em>Angus & Robertson Publishers.</em> Veron JEN. (1986). Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. <em>Angus & Robertson Publishers.</em> van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
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Jacob van der Land [email]
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Description

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Colonies are composed of unifacial laminae, sometimes forming tiers, but mostly they are horizontal. Corallites are widely spaced, thick-walled, and immersed to conical in shape, which calices 1.5-2 mm in diameter. Colour: usually yellow-green with distinct margins. Abundance: sometimes common and may form large stands on fringing reefs where the water is turbid (Veron, 1986).
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Veron JEN. (1986). Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. <em>Angus & Robertson Publishers.</em> Veron JEN. (1986). Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. <em>Angus & Robertson Publishers.</em> van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]
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Edward Vanden Berghe [email]