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Tracheophyta

Brief Summary

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Pteridophytes are the division of plants that include the ferns and so-called fern allies. This is an extremely diverse group of approximately 12,000 species of plants, so divergent that in some classifications, they have been placed in four divisions (e.g., Cronquist et al. 1966). However, three common features unite the group: 1) They are not flowering plants, but instead produce and are dispersed by spores, rather than seeds; 2) They feature a complicated life cycle that includes an alternative of generations, with germination of spores into a gametophyte generation, which is haploid (containing half the normal chromosome number, n) and usually short-lived and inconspicuous and cannot themselves produce spores, but are essential to the reproductive cycle and that exists in a separate stage from the spore-producing plants, sporophytes, which are usually perennial and conspicuous, and have roots, stems (often rhizomatous), and leaves, and are diploid, with 2n chromosomes. 3) They require free (standing) water in order to reproduce, because their flagellate sperm swim to fertilize the eggs; for this reason, many of the species live in moist habitats. In addition to sexual reproduction through the alternation of generations, many pteridophytes reproduce extensively through vegetative (clonal) propagation, typically from rhizomatous stems, but also from leaves and roots. Because of this, sterile hybrid forms that arise may persist and become common in local regions. In all but a couple of genera, modern pteridophytes lack secondary growth, including cambium tissue (which produces cork cells and bark on trees). Their characteristics remain similar those found in many of the earliest land plants. However, in contrast to mosses (Bryophyta), they are vascular plants, containing vessels (xylem and phloem) to transport water and nutrients through the stem tissues. Although no single fern species is of widespread economic importance, over 700 species from 124 genera are grown as ornamentals, either indoors or outdoors for landscaping, and some species are increasingly used in North Amerian gardens where browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana) is a problem. (Ferns in general are less likely to be browsed by deer than grasses and flowering species, but cultivars of fern species including Athyrium, Dryopteris, and Osmunda are particularly promoted as deer resistant.) Ferns are also sometimes used as a food plant--the emerging stems of some species are gathered in the wild and eaten as a vegetable (fiddlehead ferns, actually the unfurling leaves of various fern species, including Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern), Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern or buckhorn fern), Osmunda regalis (royal fern), and Athyrium esculentum (vegetable fern), although some of these species are reported to contain potential carcinogens. Many fern species also have traditional medicinal uses. (Cronquist et al. 1966, Hoshizaki and Moran 2001, Moran 2004, Wagner and Smith 1993, Wikipedia 2012.)
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Brief Summary

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The vascular plants (or tracheophytes) are characterized by the presence of vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) for structural support and for long-distance movement of water and nutrients throughout the plant body.

The relationships among the major groups of vascular plants have become clearer in recent years. Investigations into the origin and evolution of the major groups of vascular plants indicate that there is a deep division of the vascular plants into two lineages. One of these lineages includes only the lycophytes (clubmosses, spikemosses, and quillworts), accounting for less than 1% of vascular plant species. The other lineage (known as Euphyllophyta) includes two major clades: the spermatophytes or seed plants (including more than 250,000 species of angiosperms [flowering plants], conifers, cycads, gnetophytes, and the Gingko) and the monilophytes or ferns (sensu lato, including the horsetails, whisk ferns, and eusporangiate and leptosporangiate ferns, with most of the roughly 12,000 monilophyte species being leptosporangiate ferns).

(Pryer et al. 2001; Pryer et al. 2004; Smith et al. 2006; Lehtonen 2011 and references therein)

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The horsetails or scouring rushes (Equisetophyta, Sphenophyta, Arthrophyta, and Equisetaceae are among the names that have been used for this group) are now believed to form a monophyletic group with the ferns that is known as the "monilophytes" (although the position of the horsetails within the monilophytes is not yet fully resolved, they may be nested among other ferns);this clade, in turn, is the sister group to the seed plants (Pryer et al. 2001; Schneider et al. 2009 and references therein; Rai and Graham 2010 and references therein). There is just one extant genus, Equisetum, which includes around 15 extant species. Equisetum is nearly cosmopolitan (not native to Australia and New Zealand, but they are exotic weeds there). Many Equisetum have a high silica content and can be used to scour pots (explaining the name "scouring rush"). Horsetails have an extensive and diverse fossil record and several hundred million years ago widespread tree-sized relatives reached 30 m in height (even today, some Equisetum species can reach an impressive size--although nothing approaching 30 m!).

(Mabberley 2008)

For more information on the biology of horsetails, see Husby (2013) and Chad Husby's website.

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Brief Summary

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The relationship of "pteridophytes" to other vascular plants (= tracheophytes) has become clearer in recent years. Investigations into the origin and evolution of the major groups of vascular plants indicate that there is a deep division of the vascular plants into two lineages. One of these lineages includes only the lycophytes (clubmosses, spikemosses, and quillworts). The other lineage includes two major clades: the spermatophytes or seed plants (including more than 250,000 species of angiosperms [flowering plants], conifers, cycads, gnetophytes, and the Gingko) and the monilophytes or ferns (sensu lato, including the horsetails, whisk ferns, and eusporangiate and leptosporangiate ferns, with most of the roughly 12,000 monilophyte species being leptosporangiate ferns). The spermatophytes and monilophytes together comprise a clade known as Euphyllophyta.

Plants in the lycophyte and monilophyte clades are apparently not each other's closest relatives (since the monilophytes are believed to be sister to the seed plants), but because they both produce spores and not seeds, the lycophytes and ferns have traditionally been grouped together in what is now generally recognized to be a paraphyletic group referred to as "pteridophytes" or "ferns and fern allies".

(Pryer et al. 2001; Pryer et al. 2004; Smith et al. 2006; Lehtonen 2011 and references therein)

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Vascular plant

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Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum 'duct'), also called tracheophytes (/trəˈk.əˌfts/)[5][6] or collectively Tracheophyta (from Ancient Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία (trakheîa artēría) 'windpipe', and φυτά (phutá) 'plants'),[6] form a large group of land plants (c. 300,000 accepted known species)[7] that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta,[8][4]: 251  Tracheobionta[9] and Equisetopsida sensu lato. Some early land plants (the rhyniophytes) had less developed vascular tissue; the term eutracheophyte has been used for all other vascular plants, including all living ones.

Historically, vascular plants were known as "higher plants," as it was believed that they were further evolved than other plants due to being more complex organisms. However, this is an antiquated remnant of the obsolete scala naturae, and the term is generally considered to be unscientific.[10]

Characteristics

Botanists define vascular plants by three primary characteristics:

  1. Vascular plants have vascular tissues which distribute resources through the plant. Two kinds of vascular tissue occur in plants: xylem and phloem. Phloem and xylem are closely associated with one another and are typically located immediately adjacent to each other in the plant. The combination of one xylem and one phloem strand adjacent to each other is known as a vascular bundle.[11] The evolution of vascular tissue in plants allowed them to evolve to larger sizes than non-vascular plants, which lack these specialized conducting tissues and are thereby restricted to relatively small sizes.
  2. In vascular plants, the principal generation or phase is the sporophyte, which produces spores and is diploid (having two sets of chromosomes per cell). (By contrast, the principal generation phase in non-vascular plants is the gametophyte, which produces gametes and is haploid - with one set of chromosomes per cell.)
  3. Vascular plants have true roots, leaves, and stems, even if some groups have secondarily lost one or more of these traits.

Cavalier-Smith (1998) treated the Tracheophyta as a phylum or botanical division encompassing two of these characteristics defined by the Latin phrase "facies diploida xylem et phloem instructa" (diploid phase with xylem and phloem).[4]: 251 

One possible mechanism for the presumed evolution from emphasis on haploid generation to emphasis on diploid generation is the greater efficiency in spore dispersal with more complex diploid structures. Elaboration of the spore stalk enabled the production of more spores and the development of the ability to release them higher and to broadcast them farther. Such developments may include more photosynthetic area for the spore-bearing structure, the ability to grow independent roots, woody structure for support, and more branching.

Phylogeny

A proposed phylogeny of the vascular plants after Kenrick and Crane 1997[12] is as follows, with modification to the gymnosperms from Christenhusz et al. (2011a),[13] Pteridophyta from Smith et al.[14] and lycophytes and ferns by Christenhusz et al. (2011b) [15] The cladogram distinguishes the rhyniophytes from the "true" tracheophytes, the eutracheophytes.[12]

PolysporangiatesTracheophytes Eutracheophytes Euphyllophytina Lignophytes Spermatophytes

Pteridospermatophyta (seed ferns)

   

Cycadophyta (cycads)

   

Pinophyta (conifers)

   

Ginkgophyta (ginkgo)

   

Gnetophyta

   

Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)

     

Progymnospermophyta

    Pteridophyta    

Pteridopsida (true ferns)

   

Marattiopsida

   

Equisetopsida (horsetails)

   

Psilotopsida (whisk ferns & adders'-tongues)

   

Cladoxylopsida

        Lycophytina  

Lycopodiophyta

   

Zosterophyllophyta

       

Rhyniophyta

       

Aglaophyton

   

Horneophytopsida

   

This phylogeny is supported by several molecular studies.[14][16][17] Other researchers state that taking fossils into account leads to different conclusions, for example that the ferns (Pteridophyta) are not monophyletic.[18]

Hao and Xue presented an alternative phylogeny in 2013 for pre-euphyllophyte plants.[19]

Polysporangiophytes

Horneophytaceae

Tracheophytes

Cooksoniaceae

     

Aglaophyton

     

Rhyniopsida

     

Catenalis

     

Aberlemnia

     

Hsuaceae

     

Renaliaceae

Eutracheophytes    

Adoketophyton

   

†?Barinophytopsida

   

Zosterophyllopsida

      Microphylls

Hicklingia

     

Gumuia

     

Nothia

     

Zosterophyllum deciduum

   

Lycopodiopsida

             

Yunia

Euphyllophytes

Eophyllophyton

     

Trimerophytopsida

Megaphylls Moniliformopses

Ibyka

     

Pauthecophyton

     

Cladoxylopsida

   

Polypodiopsida

        Radiatopses  

Celatheca

     

Pertica

  Lignophytes  

Progymnosperms
(paraphyletic)

   

Spermatophytes

                                   
Rhyniopsids
Renalioids

Nutrient distribution

 src=
Photographs showing xylem elements in the shoot of a fig tree (Ficus alba): crushed in hydrochloric acid, between slides and cover slips.

Water and nutrients in the form of inorganic solutes are drawn up from the soil by the roots and transported throughout the plant by the xylem. Organic compounds such as sucrose produced by photosynthesis in leaves are distributed by the phloem sieve tube elements.

The xylem consists of vessels in flowering plants and tracheids in other vascular plants, which are dead hard-walled hollow cells arranged to form files of tubes that function in water transport. A tracheid cell wall usually contains the polymer lignin. The phloem, however, consists of living cells called sieve-tube members. Between the sieve-tube members are sieve plates, which have pores to allow molecules to pass through. Sieve-tube members lack such organs as nuclei or ribosomes, but cells next to them, the companion cells, function to keep the sieve-tube members alive.

Transpiration

The most abundant compound in all plants, as in all cellular organisms, is water, which serves an important structural role and a vital role in plant metabolism. Transpiration is the main process of water movement within plant tissues. Water is constantly transpired from the plant through its stomata to the atmosphere and replaced by soil water taken up by the roots. The movement of water out of the leaf stomata creates a transpiration pull or tension in the water column in the xylem vessels or tracheids. The pull is the result of water surface tension within the cell walls of the mesophyll cells, from the surfaces of which evaporation takes place when the stomata are open. Hydrogen bonds exist between water molecules, causing them to line up; as the molecules at the top of the plant evaporate, each pulls the next one up to replace it, which in turn pulls on the next one in line. The draw of water upwards may be entirely passive and can be assisted by the movement of water into the roots via osmosis. Consequently, transpiration requires very little energy to be used by the plant. Transpiration assists the plant in absorbing nutrients from the soil as soluble salts.

Absorption

Living root cells passively absorb water in the absence of transpiration pull via osmosis creating root pressure. It is possible for there to be no evapotranspiration and therefore no pull of water towards the shoots and leaves. This is usually due to high temperatures, high humidity, darkness or drought.

Conduction

Xylem and phloem tissues are involved in the conduction processes within plants. Sugars are conducted throughout the plant in the phloem, water and other nutrients through the xylem. Conduction occurs from a source to a sink for each separate nutrient. Sugars are produced in the leaves (a source) by photosynthesis and transported to the growing shoots and roots (sinks) for use in growth, cellular respiration or storage. Minerals are absorbed in the roots (a source) and transported to the shoots to allow cell division and growth.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ D. Edwards; Feehan, J. (1980). "Records of Cooksonia-type sporangia from late Wenlock strata in Ireland". Nature. 287 (5777): 41–42. Bibcode:1980Natur.287...41E. doi:10.1038/287041a0. S2CID 7958927.
  2. ^ Laura Wegener Parfrey; Daniel J G Lahr; Andrew H Knoll; Laura A Katz (16 August 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–9. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10813624P. doi:10.1073/PNAS.1110633108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3158185. PMID 21810989. Wikidata Q24614721.
  3. ^ Sinnott, E. W. 1935. Botany. Principles and Problems, 3d edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  4. ^ a b c Cavalier-Smith, T. (1998), "A revised six-kingdom system of life" (PDF), Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 73 (3): 203–266, doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1998.tb00030.x, PMID 9809012, S2CID 6557779, archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-03-29
  5. ^ "vascular plant | Definition, Characteristics, Taxonomy, Examples, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-03-22.
  6. ^ a b "Tracheophyta - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2022-03-22.
  7. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–17. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  8. ^ Abercrombie, Michael; Hickman, C. J.; Johnson, M. L. (1966). A Dictionary of Biology. Penguin Books.
  9. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Tracheobionta". Retrieved September 20, 2013.
  10. ^ "Vascular Plants: Definition, Classification, Characteristics & Examples". Sciencing. Retrieved 2022-03-22.
  11. ^ "Xylem and Phloem". Basic Biology. 26 August 2020.
  12. ^ a b Kenrick, Paul; Crane, Peter R. (1997). The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
  13. ^ Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Reveal, James L.; Farjon, Aljos; Gardner, Martin F.; Mill, R.R.; Chase, Mark W. (2011). "A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 19: 55–70. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.19.1.3.
  14. ^ a b Smith, Alan R.; Pryer, Kathleen M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Korall, P.; Schneider, H.; Wolf, Paul G. (2006). "A classification for extant ferns" (PDF). Taxon. 55 (3): 705–731. doi:10.2307/25065646. JSTOR 25065646.
  15. ^ Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Schneider, Harald (2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns" (PDF). Phytotaxa. 19: 7–54. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.19.1.2.
  16. ^ Pryer, K. M.; Schneider, H.; Smith, AR; Cranfill, R; Wolf, PG; Hunt, JS; Sipes, SD (2001). "Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants". Nature. 409 (6820): 618–22. Bibcode:2001Natur.409..618S. doi:10.1038/35054555. PMID 11214320. S2CID 4367248.
  17. ^ Pryer, K. M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Wolf, P. G.; Schneider, H.; Smith, A. R.; Cranfill, R. (2004). "Phylogeny and evolution of ferns (monilophytes) with a focus on the early leptosporangiate divergences". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1582–1598. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1582. PMID 21652310.
  18. ^ Rothwell, G.W. & Nixon, K.C. (2006). "How Does the Inclusion of Fossil Data Change Our Conclusions about the Phylogenetic History of Euphyllophytes?". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 167 (3): 737–749. doi:10.1086/503298. S2CID 86172890.
  19. ^ Hao, Shougang & Xue, Jinzhuang (2013), The early Devonian Posongchong flora of Yunnan: a contribution to an understanding of the evolution and early diversification of vascular plants, Beijing: Science Press, p. 366, ISBN 978-7-03-036616-0, retrieved 2019-10-25
  20. ^ Chapters 5, 6 and 10 Taiz and Zeiger Plant Physiology 3rd Edition SINAUER 2002
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Vascular plant: Brief Summary

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Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum 'duct'), also called tracheophytes (/trəˈkiː.əˌfaɪts/) or collectively Tracheophyta (from Ancient Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία (trakheîa artēría) 'windpipe', and φυτά (phutá) 'plants'), form a large group of land plants (c. 300,000 accepted known species) that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta,: 251  Tracheobionta and Equisetopsida sensu lato. Some early land plants (the rhyniophytes) had less developed vascular tissue; the term eutracheophyte has been used for all other vascular plants, including all living ones.

Historically, vascular plants were known as "higher plants," as it was believed that they were further evolved than other plants due to being more complex organisms. However, this is an antiquated remnant of the obsolete scala naturae, and the term is generally considered to be unscientific.

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Tracheophyta

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TracheobiontaTrachéophytes, Trachéobiontes, Plantes vasculaires

Les Trachéophytes (du grec Trakheia, conduit raboteux) ou Trachéobiontes (Tracheobionta), appelées aussi plantes vasculaires associent différentes divisions :

  1. les Lycophytes (Lycopodes et Sélaginelles) ;
  2. les Monilophytes (Fougères et Prêles) ;
  3. les Gymnospermes (Conifères, Cycas, Gingko, etc.) ;
  4. les Angiospermes (plantes à fleurs).

Les caractères principaux sont l'existence de racines et la présence de vaisseaux conducteurs (phloème et xylème contenant des trachéides, d'où le nom de Tracheophyta) assurant la circulation de la sève.

Les Polysporangiophytes sont des plantes apparues à l'Ordovicien et qui sont les premières plantes vasculaires connues[1].

Nombre d'espèces

Le groupe des Tracheophyta comprend 391 000 (383 671 espèces selon Ulloa Ulloa et al. publiés dans la revue Science fin 2017[2]) connues en 2015 (dont 369 000 espèces de plantes à fleurs), sachant que près de 2 000 nouvelles espèces sont découvertes par an[3] (dont 744/an [moyenne sur 25 ans, donnée en 2017] rien que pour les Amériques où à la fin de 2017 étaient répertoriées 124 993 plantes vasculaires, classées en 6 227 genres et 355 familles, soit 33 % du total mondial connu[2]).

Biologie

Adaptations au milieu terrestre

Le milieu aérien impose des contraintes hydriques par rapport au milieu aquatique pour les plantes qui ont conquis les terres. Les trachéophytes présentent plusieurs traits évolutifs très adaptés à la vie terrestre, notamment l'homéohydrie (leur teneur en eau est maintenue relativement constante pendant toute leur existence[4], quelles que soient les variations de l'état hygrométrique de l'air et de la teneur en eau du sol : cuticule cireuse et spores entourées d’une paroi imprégnée de sporopollénine qui préviennent de la déshydratation par la transpiration ; présence de racines et de vaisseaux conducteurs qui permettent la circulation de l'eau et des nutriments das toutes les parties de la plante ; développement d'un appareil végétatif très ramifié qui permet d'échanger au maximum le dioxyde de carbone et le dioxygène avec l'air[5].

Cycles reproductifs

 src=
Cycle reproductif des embryophytes héterosporées.
 src=
Cycle reproductif des embryophytes isosporées.

Classification

 src=
Arbre phylogénétique des végétaux.

Classes actuelles

Les classes des nouvelles classifications correspondent à des rangs traditionnellement considérés comme des divisions avec une terminaison en -phyta.
Liste des classes selon ITIS[6] et World Register of Marine Species[7] :

Groupes fossiles

Liste des groupes fossiles selon Novikov & Barabasz-Krasny (2015)[8] :

Ces divisions peuvent, dans les nouvelles classifications, avoir le rang de classe et une terminaison en -opsida au lieu de -phyta.

Phylogénie basale

Phylogénie des ordres actuels de Ptéridophytes d'après le Pteridophytes Phylogeny Group (2016)[9] :

Tracheophyta Lycopodiopsida

Lycopodiales (Lycopodes)




Isoëtales (Isoëtes)



Selaginellales (Sélaginelles)




Euphyllophytina Polypodiopsida
Equisetidae

Equisetales (Prêles)





Ophioglossidae

Ophioglossales



Psilotales (Psilotes)






Marattiidae

Marattiales


Polypodiidae

Osmundales




Hymenophyllales




Gleicheniales




Schizaeales




Salviniales




Cyatheales



Polypodiales












(Spermatophytina)

(Spermatophyta, les plantes à graines)




Classification phylogénétique : voir article Archaeplastida (classification phylogénétique).

Outils taxonomiques

Depuis plusieurs siècles les flores permettent aux botanistes d'identifier les espèces de trachéophytes qu'ils observent. Les progrès de l'histologie[10], de la phylogénétique [11] la génétique puis l'apparition de l'informatique et de la bioinformatique ou encore la découverte de nouveaux biomarqueurs (cyanogènes par exemple[12]) ont ensuite contribué à l'apparition de nouveaux moyens d'étude et d'identification[13].

Par exemple, en France, au début de 2015[14], la base de données BDTFX, contient un référentiel des trachéophytes de France métropolitaine et des pays voisins, et un index synonymique et nomenclatural de 95 005 noms pour 21 812 taxons. Il est issu de la BDNFF, et a été mis au point par Tela Botanica. Depuis mars 2015, il propose aussi des liens vers la diagnose du nom et renvoie vers le numéro de page correspondante de Flora Gallica.

Pour la France, une nouvelle version (12 octobre 2011) du référentiel des trachéophytes de métropole a été mise en ligne sur le site de l’INPN[15].

Données de répartition

En France, la Fédération des conservatoires botaniques nationaux met à disposition du grand public, sur Internet, des données de répartition sur les trachéophytes à travers un atlas national de la flore de France[16].

Notes et références

  1. Guillaume Lecointre et Hervé Le Guyader, Classification phylogénétique du vivant, Belin, 2001, p. 170
  2. a et b Carmen Ulloa Ulloa et al., An integrated assessment of the vascular plant species of the Americas , Science, 22 décembre 2017, vol. 358, no 6370, p. 1614-1617, DOI: 10.1126/science.aao0398, résumé.
  3. (en) Steven Bachman, State of the World's Plants Report. 2016, Jardins botaniques royaux de Kew, p. 7/84, 2016, (ISBN 978-1-84246-628-5).
  4. Si cette teneur descend au-dessous de 50 % de leur poids frais, des troubles graves surviennent.
  5. David Garon et Jean-Christophe Guéguen, Biodiversité et évolution du monde végétal, EDP Sciences, 2014, p. 99-100
  6. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), www.itis.gov, CC0 https://doi.org/10.5066/F7KH0KBK, consulté le 26 avril 2019
  7. World Register of Marine Species, consulté le 26 avril 2019
  8. (ru) Novikoff A., Barabasz-Krasny B. 2015. Modern plant systematics. General issues. Liga-Press, Lviv.
  9. (en) PPG I (2016), A community‐derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Jnl of Sytematics Evolution, 54: 563-603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229 (lire en ligne)
  10. Kaiser, H. E. (1984). Functional comparative histology. 2. Communication: organismic taxonomy (plant and animal taxonomy). Gegenbaurs morphologisches Jahrbuch, 131(5), 643-699.
  11. Cantino, P. D., Doyle, J. A., Graham, S. W., Judd, W. S., Olmstead, R. G., Soltis, D. E., ... & Donoghue, M. J. (2007). Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon, 56(3), 1E-44E.
  12. Hegnauer, R. (1977). Cyanogenic compounds as systematic markers in Tracheophyta. In Flowering Plants (pp. 191-210). Springer Vienna (résumé).
  13. Parascan, D., Danciu, M., & Ignea, G. (2006). New accomplishments in the taxonomy of Tracheophyta. In Lucrările sesiuni ştiinţifice Pădurea şi dezvoltarea durabilă, Braşov, Romania, 2005. (pp. 193-198). Transilvania University of Braşov (résumé).
  14. version 3.00 de janvier 2015 de la base de données BDTFX
  15. Louise Boulangeat, Les référentiels taxonomiques, nouvelle version pour les trachéophytes de métropole, Téla Botanica, Brèves, 19 octobre 2011.
  16. Fédération des conservatoires botaniques nationaux, Atlas national de la flore de France.

Voir aussi

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Tracheophyta: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Tracheobionta • Trachéophytes, Trachéobiontes, Plantes vasculaires

Les Trachéophytes (du grec Trakheia, conduit raboteux) ou Trachéobiontes (Tracheobionta), appelées aussi plantes vasculaires associent différentes divisions :

les Lycophytes (Lycopodes et Sélaginelles) ; les Monilophytes (Fougères et Prêles) ; les Gymnospermes (Conifères, Cycas, Gingko, etc.) ; les Angiospermes (plantes à fleurs).

Les caractères principaux sont l'existence de racines et la présence de vaisseaux conducteurs (phloème et xylème contenant des trachéides, d'où le nom de Tracheophyta) assurant la circulation de la sève.

Les Polysporangiophytes sont des plantes apparues à l'Ordovicien et qui sont les premières plantes vasculaires connues.

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관다발식물

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

관다발식물(管다발 植物)은 식물 전체에 물과 미네랄을 전달하기 위해 목질화된 조직(목질부)이 있는 육상 식물로 정의되는 대규모 식물 분류군으로 약 30만 종이 알려져 있다. 관다발식물은 또한 광합성 산물을 수행하기 위해 목질화되지 않은 특수한 조직(체관부)을 가지고 있다. 석송류속새류, 양치류, 겉씨식물(침엽수 포함) 및 속씨식물(꽃이 피는 식물)이 포함된다.

하위 분류

계통 분류

다음은 2006년 추(Qiu) 등과 2004년 크레인(Crane) 등의 연구에 의한 유배식물 계통 분류이다.[1][2]

유배식물

우산이끼류

     

이끼류

     

뿔이끼류

관다발식물

석송류

진엽식물

양치류

종자식물

겉씨식물

   

속씨식물

             

각주

  1. Qiu, Y.L.; Li, L.; Wang, B.; Chen, Z.; 외. (2006), “The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylogenomic evidence”, 《Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences》 103 (42): 15511–6, Bibcode:2006PNAS..10315511Q, doi:10.1073/pnas.0603335103, PMC 1622854, PMID 17030812
  2. Crane, P.R.; Herendeen, P. & Friis, E.M. (2004), “Fossils and plant phylogeny”, 《American Journal of Botany》 91 (10): 1683–99, doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1683, PMID 21652317, 2011년 1월 28일에 확인함
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