dcsimg

Laurasiatheria

provided by wikipedia EN

Laurasiatheria ("laurasian beasts") is a superorder of placental mammals that groups together order Eulipotyphla and clade Scrotifera.[1][3][4] It is a sister group to Euarchontoglires with which it forms the magnorder Boreoeutheria. Laurasiatheria was discovered on the basis of the similar gene sequences shared by the mammals belonging to it; no anatomical features have yet been found that unite the group. The Laurasiatheria clade is based on DNA sequence analyses and retrotransposon presence/absence data. The superorder originated on the northern supercontinent of Laurasia, after it split from Gondwana when Pangaea broke up.[1] Its last common ancestor is supposed to have diversified ca. 76[5] to 90[6] million years ago.

Etymology

The name of this superorder made from the theory that these mammals evolved on the supercontinent of Laurasia.[1] In contrast, extinct primitive mammals called Gondwanatheria existed in the supercontinent of Gondwana.

Classification and phylogeny

Uncertainty still exists regarding the phylogenetic tree for extant laurasiatherians, primarily due to disagreement about the placement of orders Chiroptera and Perissodactyla. Based on morphological grounds, bats (order Chiroptera) had long been classified in the superorder Archonta (e.g. along with primates, treeshrews and the gliding colugos) until genetic research instead showed their kinship with the other laurasiatheres.[7] The studies conflicted in terms of the exact placement of Chiroptera, however, with it being linked most closely to groups such as order Eulipotyphla in the clade Insectiphillia. Two 2013 studies retrieve that bats, carnivorans and euungulates form a clade Scrotifera, therefore involving that Eulipotyphla might be a basal group to all other Laurasiatheria taxa.[8][9]

Phylogeny within superorder Laurasiatheria[10][6][11][12][13] Placentalia

Atlantogenata Elephas africanus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - (white background).jpg

Boreoeutheria

Euarchontoglires Bruno Liljefors - Hare studies 1885 white background.jpg

Laurasiatheria Eulipotyphla

Erinaceota Erinaceus europaeus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg

   

Solenodonota Solenodon paradoxus (Plate 2) (white background).jpg

    Scrotifera

Chiroptera Braunes Langohr (Plectus auritus).jpg

   

Ferungulata Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XI).jpg

          The cladogram has been reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA and protein characters, as well as the fossil record.

Laurasiatheria is also posited to include several extinct orders and superorders. At least some of these are considered wastebasket taxa, historically lumping together several lineages based on superficial attributes and assumed relations to modern mammals. In some cases, these orders have turned out to either be paraphyletic assemblages, or to be composed of mammals now understood not to be laurasiatheres at all.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Waddell, Peter J.; Okada, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Masami (1999). "Towards Resolving the Interordinal Relationships of Placental Mammals". Systematic Biology. 48 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1093/sysbio/48.1.1. PMID 12078634.
  2. ^ Arnason U., Adegoke J. A., Gullberg A., Harley E. H., Janke A., Kullberg M. (2008.) "Mitogenomic relationships of placental mammals and molecular estimates of their divergences." Gene.; 421(1-2):37–51
  3. ^ Nikaido, M.; Rooney, A. P. & Okada, N. (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interpersed elements: Hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96 (18): 10261–10266. Bibcode:1999PNAS...9610261N. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.18.10261. PMC 17876. PMID 10468596.
  4. ^ Groves, Colin; Grubb, Peter (1 November 2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. JHU Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4214-0093-8. OCLC 708357723.
  5. ^ dos Reis, Mario; Inoue, Jun; Hasegawa, Masami; Asher, Robert J.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.; Yang, Ziheng (2012-09-07). "Phylogenomic datasets provide both precision and accuracy in estimating the timescale of placental mammal phylogeny". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1742): 3491–3500. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0683. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 3396900. PMID 22628470.
  6. ^ a b Zhou, Xuming; Xu, Shixia; Xu, Junxiao; Chen, Bingyao; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang (2012-01-01). "Phylogenomic Analysis Resolves the Interordinal Relationships and Rapid Diversification of the Laurasiatherian Mammals". Systematic Biology. 61 (1): 150–64. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr089. ISSN 1063-5157. PMC 3243735. PMID 21900649.
  7. ^ Pumo, Dorothy E.; Finamore, Peter S.; Franek, William R.; Phillips, Carleton J.; Tarzami, Sima; Balzarano, Darlene (1998). "Complete Mitochondrial Genome of a Neotropical Fruit Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, and a New Hypothesis of the Relationships of Bats to Other Eutherian Mammals". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 47 (6): 709–717. Bibcode:1998JMolE..47..709P. doi:10.1007/PL00006430. PMID 9847413. S2CID 22900642.
  8. ^ Tsagkogeorga, G; Parker, J; Stupka, E.; Cotton, J. A.; Rossiter, S. J. (2013). "Phylogenomic analyses elucidate the evolutionary relationships of bats". Current Biology. 23 (22): 2262–2267. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.014. PMID 24184098.
  9. ^ Morgan, C. C.; Foster, P. G.; Webb, A. E.; Pisani, D.; McInerney, J. O.; O'Connell, M. J. (2013). "Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 30 (9): 2145–2256. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst117. PMC 3748356. PMID 23813979.
  10. ^ Waddell, Peter J.; Kishino, Hirohisa; Ota, Rissa (2001). "A phylogenetic foundation for comparative mammalian genomics". Genome Informatics. 12: 141–154. PMID 11791233.
  11. ^ O’Leary, M. A., Bloch JI, Flynn, J. J., Gaudin, T. J., Giallombardo, A., Giannini, N. P., Goldber, S. L, Kraatz, B. P., Luo, Z-X, Jin Meng, Xijun Ni, Novacek, M. J., Perini, F. A., Randall, Z. S., Rougier, G. W., Sargis, E. J., Silcox, M. T., Simmons, N. B., Spaulding, M. Velazco, P. M., Weksler, M., Wible, J. R. Cirranello, A. L. (2013.) "The Placental Mammal Ancestor and the Post–K-Pg Radiation of Placentals." Science 339:6120:662-667.
  12. ^ Frank Zachos (2020.) "Mammalian Phylogenetics: A Short Overview of Recent Advances", In book: "Mammals of Europe - Past, Present, and Future" (pp.31-48)
  13. ^ Xue Lv, Jingyang Hu, Yiwen Hu, Yitian Li, Dongming Xu, Oliver A. Ryder, David M. Irwin, Li Yu (2021.) "Diverse phylogenomic datasets uncover a concordant scenario of laurasiatherian interordinal relationships", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 157
  14. ^ Burger, Benjamin J., (2015.) "The systematic position of the saber-toothed and horned giants of the Eocene: the Uintatheres (order Dinocerata)", Utah State University Uintah Basin Campus, Vernal, Utah
  15. ^ Avilla, Leonardo S.; Mothé, Dimila (2021). "Out of Africa: A New Afrotheria Lineage Rises From Extinct South American Mammals". Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 9. doi:10.3389/fevo.2021.654302. ISSN 2296-701X.

Further reading

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Laurasiatheria: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Laurasiatheria ("laurasian beasts") is a superorder of placental mammals that groups together order Eulipotyphla and clade Scrotifera. It is a sister group to Euarchontoglires with which it forms the magnorder Boreoeutheria. Laurasiatheria was discovered on the basis of the similar gene sequences shared by the mammals belonging to it; no anatomical features have yet been found that unite the group. The Laurasiatheria clade is based on DNA sequence analyses and retrotransposon presence/absence data. The superorder originated on the northern supercontinent of Laurasia, after it split from Gondwana when Pangaea broke up. Its last common ancestor is supposed to have diversified ca. 76 to 90 million years ago.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Laurasiatheria

provided by wikipedia FR

Laurasiathériens

Les laurasiathériens (Laurasiatheria) forment un super-ordre de mammifères placentaires que des analyses phylogénétiques relativement récentes ont fait découvrir. Il est fondé à partir d'analyse ADN sur la présence de marqueurs rétrotransposon. Il est placé avec les euarchontoglires au sein du groupe Boreoeutheria.

Classification

Selon le NCBI :

L'ordre Insectivora correspond pour d'autres auteurs aux ordres Soricomorpha, Erinaceomorpha et Afrosoricida.

Systematique

Phylogénie des ordres actuels de laurasiathériens, d'après Zhou et al., 2011[1] :

Boreoeutheria

Euarchontoglires Bruno Liljefors - Hare studies 1885 white background.jpg
(primates, dermoptères, toupayes, rongeurs, lapins)


Laurasiatheria

Eulipotyphla Erinaceus europaeus - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg
(hérissons, musaraignes, taupes, solénodontes)


Scrotifera

Chiroptera Flying fox at botanical gardens in Sydney (cropped and flipped).jpg
(chauves-souris)


Fereuungulata Ferae

Pholidota Pangolin Hardwicke (white background).jpg
(pangolins)



Carnivora Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XI).jpg
(chats, hyènes, chiens, ours, phoques, etc.)



Ungulata

Perissodactyla Equus quagga (white background).jpg
(chevaux, tapirs, rhinocéros, etc.)



Cetartiodactyla The deer of all lands (1898) Hangul white background.png
(chameaux, porcs, ruminants, hippopotames, baleines, etc.)







Voir aussi

Notes et références

  1. (en) Xuming Zhou, Shixia Xu, Junxiao Xu, Bingyao Chen, Zhou Kaiya et Guang Yang, « Phylogenomic Analysis Resolves the Interordinal Relationships and Rapid Diversification of the Laurasiatherian Mammals », Systematic Biology, vol. 61, no 1,‎ 2011, p. 150–164 (PMID , PMCID , DOI )
license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

Laurasiatheria: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Laurasiathériens

Les laurasiathériens (Laurasiatheria) forment un super-ordre de mammifères placentaires que des analyses phylogénétiques relativement récentes ont fait découvrir. Il est fondé à partir d'analyse ADN sur la présence de marqueurs rétrotransposon. Il est placé avec les euarchontoglires au sein du groupe Boreoeutheria.

license
fr
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia FR

로라시아상목

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

로라시아상목(Laurasiatheria)은 DNA 염기서열 분석에 기초한, 태반류(Placentalia) 또는 진수하강(Eutheria)에 속하는 포유류의 분류군이다. 이 이름은, 초대륙 판게아에서 분리된 로라시아곤드와나 중, 로라시아에서 이들 포유류가 진화했다는 이론에서 유래하였다. 영장상목(Euarchontoglires)과 자매군이다. 다음과 같은 현존하는 동물의 목을 포함하고 있다.

  • 진무맹장류 (Eulipotyphla) : 고슴도치와 털고슴도치, 두더쥐, 땃쥐, 솔레노돈
  • 경우제류 (Cetartiodactyla) : 전 세계적으로 분포
    • 고래목 (Cetacea) : 고래와 돌고래 그리고 참돌고래
    • 우제목 (Artiodactyla) : 발굽이 짝수 개(돼지, 하마, 낙타, 기린, 사슴, 영양, 소, 양, 염소 등)
  • Pegasoferae:
    • 유린목 (Pholidota) : 천산갑(아프리카, 남아시아)
    • 박쥐목 (Chiroptera) : 박쥐 등 (전 세계적으로 분포)
    • 식육목 (Carnivora) : 개 등(전 세계적으로 분포)
    • 기제목 (Perissodactyla) : 발굽이 홀수 개(말, 맥, 코뿔소 등)

로라시아상목, 고슴도치목 등은 매우 다양하게 분기되어 진화하였음을 보여 주고 있다. 연구 결과에 따라서, 일부는 말목과 광수류(廣獣類, 또는 야수류(野獣類), Ferae)를 우수류(友獣類, Zooamata) 계통군에 넣거나 일부는 말목과 경우제류(鯨偶蹄類)를 진(眞)-유제류(有蹄類) 계통군에 넣기도 한다. 어느 계통 분류 방법도 완벽하게 지지되고 있지는 않다.

로라시아상목에는 또한 다음과 같은 멸종된 여러 개의 목을 포함하고 있다.

  • 오제류/남제류 또는 오제목/남제목 (南蹄目/午蹄目, Meridiungulata)
  • 과절류 또는 과절목 (顆節目, Condylarthra)
  • 공각류 또는 공각목 (恐角目, Dinocerata)
  • 메소니키아류 또는 중조수목 (中爪獸目, Mesonychia) = 무육치류(無肉歯類, Acreodi)
  • 키몰레스테스류 (Cimolesta)
  • 육치류 또는 육치목 (肉齒目, Creodonta)

계통 분류

다음은 포유류 계통 분류이다.[1]

포유강

단공목 오리너구리

수아강

유대하강 캥거루과

진수하강 대서양원류  

아프로테리아상목 아시아코끼리 매너티속

   

빈치상목 아홉띠아르마딜로 큰개미핥기

    북방진수류 로라시아상목

진무맹장목 두더지과

  음낭야수류  

박쥐목 흡혈박쥐아과

  야수진제류 광수류  

유린목 천산갑과

   

식육목 치타캘리포니아바다사자

    진유제류

말목(기제류) 사바나얼룩말검은코뿔소

   

경우제목(우제류) 왈리아아이벡스북대서양참고래

          영장상목

설치동물 시궁쥐속산토끼속

   

영장동물 울보카푸친사람

           

각주

  1. Nishihara, H.; Maruyama, S.; Okada, N. (2009). “Retroposon analysis and recent geological data suggest near-simultaneous divergence of the three superorders of mammals”. 《Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences》 106 (13): 5235–5240. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.5235N. doi:10.1073/pnas.0809297106. PMC 2655268. PMID 19286970.
  • William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, Mark S. Springer et al., Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics,Science, Vol 294, Issue 5550, 2348-2351, 14 December 2001.
  • Jan Ole Kriegs, Gennady Churakov, Martin Kiefmann, Ursula Jordan, Juergen Brosius, Juergen Schmitz. (2006) Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals. PLoS Biol 4(4): e91.[1] (pdf version)
  • Kitazoe Y, Kishino H, Waddell PJ, Nakajima N, Okabayashi T, et al. (2007) "Robust Time Estimation Reconciles Views of the Antiquity of Placental Mammals." PLoS ONE 2(4): e384. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000384
 title=
license
ko
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

로라시아상목: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

로라시아상목(Laurasiatheria)은 DNA 염기서열 분석에 기초한, 태반류(Placentalia) 또는 진수하강(Eutheria)에 속하는 포유류의 분류군이다. 이 이름은, 초대륙 판게아에서 분리된 로라시아곤드와나 중, 로라시아에서 이들 포유류가 진화했다는 이론에서 유래하였다. 영장상목(Euarchontoglires)과 자매군이다. 다음과 같은 현존하는 동물의 목을 포함하고 있다.

진무맹장류 (Eulipotyphla) : 고슴도치와 털고슴도치, 두더쥐, 땃쥐, 솔레노돈 경우제류 (Cetartiodactyla) : 전 세계적으로 분포 고래목 (Cetacea) : 고래와 돌고래 그리고 참돌고래 우제목 (Artiodactyla) : 발굽이 짝수 개(돼지, 하마, 낙타, 기린, 사슴, 영양, 소, 양, 염소 등) Pegasoferae: 유린목 (Pholidota) : 천산갑(아프리카, 남아시아) 박쥐목 (Chiroptera) : 박쥐 등 (전 세계적으로 분포) 식육목 (Carnivora) : 개 등(전 세계적으로 분포) 기제목 (Perissodactyla) : 발굽이 홀수 개(말, 맥, 코뿔소 등)

로라시아상목, 고슴도치목 등은 매우 다양하게 분기되어 진화하였음을 보여 주고 있다. 연구 결과에 따라서, 일부는 말목과 광수류(廣獣類, 또는 야수류(野獣類), Ferae)를 우수류(友獣類, Zooamata) 계통군에 넣거나 일부는 말목과 경우제류(鯨偶蹄類)를 진(眞)-유제류(有蹄類) 계통군에 넣기도 한다. 어느 계통 분류 방법도 완벽하게 지지되고 있지는 않다.

로라시아상목에는 또한 다음과 같은 멸종된 여러 개의 목을 포함하고 있다.

오제류/남제류 또는 오제목/남제목 (南蹄目/午蹄目, Meridiungulata) 과절류 또는 과절목 (顆節目, Condylarthra) 공각류 또는 공각목 (恐角目, Dinocerata) 메소니키아류 또는 중조수목 (中爪獸目, Mesonychia) = 무육치류(無肉歯類, Acreodi) 키몰레스테스류 (Cimolesta) 육치류 또는 육치목 (肉齒目, Creodonta)
license
ko
copyright
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/