dcsimg

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

provided by AnAge articles
Maximum longevity: 15.8 years (captivity)
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
editor
de Magalhaes, J. P.
partner site
AnAge articles

Behavior

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Species within Pteropus are frugivores and do not echolocate. No information on the communication of P. scapulatus is available; however, generally Pteropus species are known to communicate with loud vocalizations. While roosting, vocalizations are emitted by adults and juveniles at frequencies that are audible to the human ear. Communication by such vocalizations occurs during agonistic behaviors, escaping agonistic behaviors, and by females when males attempt to copulate with them. Vocalizations by juveniles help mothers identify their young after foraging.

In addition to vocal communication, tactile communication is important between mates and between mothers and their offspring.

Chemical communication is important in some species of Pteropus, especially in helping males mark territories during breeding season. Although this behavior has not been reported for this species, it is possible that similar scent cues are used.

The role of visual signals, such as body postures, has not been investigated.

Communication Channels: tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pteropus scapulatus is considered common, and is legally protected in Australia. This species does not qualify for endangered, threatened, or vulnerable status and is considered a taxon of least concern.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

In regions of fruit production, this species is considered a pest because of its tendency to feed upon agricultural crops.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pteropus scapulatus contributes to the pollination of plants that are important for humans, including trees used for lumber, food, and medicine.

Positive Impacts: pollinates crops

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Little red flying foxes are important for the pollination and seed dispersal of native flora within Australia.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds; pollinates

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Little red flying foxes are known to primarily feed on blossoms of eucalyptus trees. However, it is currently uncertain what the importance of eucalyptus foliage is in their diet. It has been suggested that Pteropus species obtain high amounts of calcium from calcium-rich vegetation such as eucalyptus. There is some suggestion that P. scapulatus follows the foraging resources of eucalyptus blooms throughout the landscape. No other information pertaining to the foraging habits of little red flying foxes is currently available.

Plant Foods: fruit; nectar; flowers

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus) are primarily found in Australia and have the largest distribution of any other member of the genus Pteropus within Australia. Occasionally, these bats have been seen as far away as Papua New Guinea. There has also been one sighting of an individual in New Zealand. Although little red flying foxes occur throughout Australia, they are particularly abundant in northern Australia.

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native ); oceanic islands (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Little red flying foxes occur throughout coastal regions as well as arid landscapes of inland Australia. Limited knowledge from recent studies suggests that these bats often congregate at camps in riparian habitat, such as fresh/saltwater mangroves, bamboo, and closed forests. Selection of such congregation sites may be determined by seasonal variation, as well as by other factors; such as human hunting, natural catastrophe regimes, and climatic fluctuations.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

Wetlands: swamp

Other Habitat Features: agricultural ; riparian

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Life Expectancy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

No information is available on the life span of this species. However, other members of the genus are reported to have lived as long as 30 years in captivity. As flying mammals typically have lifespans longer than expected based solely upon their body size, it is likely that P. scapulatus has a similarly long lifespan.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
15.8 years.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Little red flying foxes are medium-sized bats. The average wingspan of P. scapulatus males varies from .9 to 1.2 m. Weights of these males can can reach 550 g. There is no relevant literature available pertaining to body length and basal metabolic rate of P. scapulatus. However the body length of black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto) is known to range from 240 to 260 mm.

After winter solstice, the testicular size and body weight of males increase.

Range mass: 550 g (high) g.

Range wingspan: 0.9 to 1.2 mm.

Average wingspan: 1.0 mm.

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average basal metabolic rate: 1.353 W.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Limited information is available on the predators of Pteropus species. In many states throughout Australia, P. scapulatus is considered a pest, and is subject to large-scale hunting and poisoning by humans.

Known Predators:

  • Homo sapiens
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Females and males congregate in large camps, especially during the 2-month mating season and during the 5 months of lactation. As many as 1 million individuals are known to congregate at a single camp.

Studies suggest that most females are associated with males in harem groups during the mating season. After mating, females establish small groups consisting exclusively of females. These small female groups are maintained until young are born.

Mating System: polygynous

The breeding season of P. scapulatus occurs between the Australian spring months of November and December. It and appears to be regulated by circannual endogenous rhythms. Young are born 5 months later in April to May. Many species in the genus Pteropus undergo delayed implantation, so it is possible that the actual time of development is not as long as the gestation period indicates. Lactation in this genus lasts between 3 and 6 months, although data are not available on its duration for P. scapulatus. Sexual maturity is typically reached between 18 months and 2 years of age.

Breeding interval: These bats breed once yearly.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs in November and December.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 4 to 5 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; delayed implantation

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
540 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
540 days.

Young bats are not able to fly from birth, and so may be called altricial. In some Pteropus species, the mother carries her young with her for a few months. There are no data on this behavior P. scapulatus. Lactating Pteropus females raise their young close to adult size before they are weaned. Females must contribute close to all of the calcium that is required to the developing skeletal system of the offspring. As a consequence, females often suffer from osteoporosis. Females with osteoporosis have a greater chance of breaking bones necessary for flight. Without the ability to fly, there is a high probability that females with broken limbs will die from starvation.

There are no data available on the role of males in parental care.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Marko, J. 2005. "Pteropus scapulatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pteropus_scapulatus.html
editor
Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
author
Jeremie Marko, Humboldt State University
editor
Brian Arbogast, Humboldt State University
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Biology

provided by Arkive
Within their large camps, little red flying foxes roost in close proximity and in tight clusters, often causing large limbs of rainforest trees to snap off under the sheer weight of so many bats on a single branch (8)! During the breeding season between November and January (the Australian late spring, early summer) males establish territories within these roosts, from which they actively defend a harem of two to five females from other males (3) (4). After mating, females establish small groups consisting exclusively of females, which are maintained until young are born five months later in April to May (3). Females carry their young during flight for the first four to six weeks of life, after which the infant is left at the roost while they forage at night. At two months, young will move and fly around between the trees within the camp (4). Sexual maturity is typically reached between 18 months and 2 years of age (3). This nectar specialist primarily feeds on the nectar and pollen of eucalyptus blossoms (4) (7), although the diet also includes flowers, fruit, growing shoots, bark, sap and insects and fruit orchards are occasionally raided when food is scarce, much to the irritation of farmers (2) (4). Little red flying foxes may fly over 80 km a night visiting different trees (7) and, like other flying foxes, use their excellent sense of sight and smell to find their food (9).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Conservation

provided by Arkive
Since most of the bats are snared on the top strand of the barbed wire fence, it has been advocated that the top strand should be replaced with smooth, galvanised wire as an obvious solution to the problem (7). Fortunately, the little red flying fox remains common in Australia, where it is legally protected, and is not considered endangered (3).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Description

provided by Arkive
As its common name suggests, the little red fox has a conspicuously reddish tinge to its fur and is one of the smallest of the Pteropus species (4) (6). The fur on the head is often grey and the leathery wings are reddish-brown and appear semi-translucent in flight (4) (7). This species is an efficient climber, using its jointed thumbs and its feet to clamber with great agility about the branches of a tree (8).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Habitat

provided by Arkive
During the day, colonies known as 'camps' can sometimes have as many as one million bats. The little red flying fox roosts in the trees of a broad range of habitats including eucalypt forests, woodland, paperbark swamps, mangroves and bamboo thickets (4). This species is nomadic, venturing from coastal to rainforest to dry inland areas (8), following the seasonally varying flowering and fruiting cycles of different trees (2) (4).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Range

provided by Arkive
Found throughout Australia in Queensland, the Northern Territory, Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria, but particularly abundant in the north (2) (3). Occasionally individuals have been seen as far away as Papua New Guinea, and there has also been one sighting of an individual in New Zealand (3).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Status

provided by Arkive
Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (5).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Threats

provided by Arkive
Like other Australian flying foxes, the little red flying fox is vulnerable to loss of suitable feeding and roosting sites due to clearance of native vegetation by forestry operations and for agriculture and urban development (10). In many states across Australia, flying foxes are considered orchard pests and in the past have been subjected to large-scale hunting and poisoning by farmers (3). An additional threat claiming the lives of hundreds of little red flying foxes and other wildlife is ensnaring on barbed wire fences, which are almost institutionalised in beef and dairy farming. At sunrise, returning bats often fly low to the ground to reduce wind resistance and many do not see the barbed wire fences until it is too late. The barbs puncture the delicate membrane of the bats' wings, and the frantic victims' struggles only cause further entanglement, while attempts to chew the wire to free themselves often mean the animal gets caught further by its mouth. The wings become torn, the fine wing bones smashed and, frequently, the upper palate is punctured or completely fractured. Unless rescued by humans, death is swift, and at least 40% of those recovered in time are too badly damaged to be released back into the wild (7).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Little red flying fox

provided by wikipedia EN

The little red flying-fox (Pteropus scapulatus) is a megachiropteran bat native to northern and eastern Australia. The species weighs about half a kilogram, one US pound, and is the smallest species of Pteropus in mainland Australia. P. scapulatus occurs at the coast and further inland, camping and flying to the tropical to temperate regions that provide them with an annual source of nectar. They exhibit an unusual method of obtaining drinking water during dry periods, skimming a stream's surface to gather it onto their fur while they are in flight.

Taxonomy

The first description was published by Wilhelm Peters in 1862, as a 'new species of flederhund from New Holland'.[2] The type specimen was collected at Cape York peninsula. The population gives its name to the 'scapulatus species group', as recognised by authors in the late twentieth century.[3]

Pteropus scapulatus is well known and referred to by many names, these include the 'collared' flying-fox or fruit-bat, the reddish fruit-bat and little reds.[4]

Description

A flying mammal of the pteropodid family, frugivorous bats with simple dog-like heads, often found roosting closely together in large numbers. The characteristic absence of a tail distinguishes these 'flying-foxes' from other bats in Australia.[5] The wing is extended with a forearm measuring 120 to 150 millimetres in length, the head and body combined is 125 to 200 mm. The length from the tip to base of the ear is 29 to 40 mm, and these are quite prominent for an Australian 'flying-fox'.[6][5] A measured weight range of 300 to 600 grams, gives the species an average mass of 450 grams.[6]

The colour of the pelage is reddish brown, the short fur appearing over most of the body and more sparsely at the lower part of the leg. The fur at the head is a dark to light shade of grey. Creamy-white hair may appear at the shoulders, or a pale yellowish patch found between these.[6] The patagium of the wing is a pale brown colour, and somewhat translucent while the bat is in flight.[5][6]

Pteropus scapulatus emits an abrupt 'yap' sound, accompanied by a variety of screeches, squeals and twittering noises, voiced at a high-pitch. They resemble other species found in Australia, the bare legs, reddish fur colour, and the paler near-transparent wings distinguish it from the grey-headed species Pteropus poliocephalus, and the larger and black fruit-bat Pteropus alecto. Their appearance closely resembles Pteropus macrotis, which occurs at and north of Boigu Island.[6]

Behaviour

The largest range of all the species, extending further inland than the others of the family, Pteropus scapulatus will also decamp and roam widely to increase their food availability.[7][6] The primary source of food for this species is obtained from Eucalyptus and Corymbia blossoms. Their diet consists of nectar and pollen of these eucalypts and is responsible for the much of their pollination, the irregular flowering periods induce the camps to forage in new areas.[5] The nectar of Melaleuca species is also favoured, and they are attracted to other native and cultivated fruiting trees.[6] P. scapulatus camps may become large groups of tens of thousands, with records of some colonies of over one hundred thousand individuals.[4] This species gives birth 6 months later than the other mainland flying fox species, in April and May,[7] this may be to avoid exposing a newborn to the high temperatures of the northern austral summer.[5]

The populous and conspicuous camps of P. scapulatus attract a number of larger predators. including both terrestrial and aerial hunters. The sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster will capture these bats in flight as they leave their roosts. The snake species Morelia spilota is frequently found as a resident at these camps, lazily selecting an individual from the apparently unconcerned group at a branch. The bat is seized in the jaws and encircled by the python's body, then swallowed head first to be digested over the next week. The arid climate in parts of the range will prompt the species to seek water in the late afternoon, and this provides an opportunity for freshwater crocodile species Crocodylus johnstoni found across the Top End and northern parts of the continent.[5] A National Geographic Channel special program (World's Weirdest: Flying Foxes) documents that the little red flying fox will skim the surface of rivers, then lap the water from their fur; this can put them in within reach of the crocodiles snapping in the air.[8] The 'freshies', as these crocodilians are locally known, will also place themselves beneath the overhanging roosts of this species, and employ a strategy of thrashing at the shoreline to induce panic and aerial collisions. The species are quick and adept swimmers, presumably due to the advantages in surviving and escaping immersion in water.[5]

Larger camps are formed during the breeding period, around October to November, and reduce in size as the birthing period approaches, during March to April.[6] Females start to form separate maternity colonies as gestation advances, and they may join other Pteropus species at their roosts, the births occur in April to May after the dispersal of the larger camp. When the camp regroups later in the year the juveniles gather at their own roosts, joining the breeding camp at the next season when they have become sexually mature.[4]

The habitat of roost sites is often composed of wet understorey which provides a temperate microclimate. The 'little reds' will seek to roost closely with others, their combined weight may break branches as they join the camp at a tree. The species is susceptible to heat stroke, and many individuals die when suitable roost sites are unavailable. The disturbance to camps by human intervention during hot weather may cause the deaths of thousands of these bats.[5]

Distribution and habitat

Pteropus scapulatus has a wide distribution range across the north and east of Australia, occupying coastal and sub-coastal regions. The western extent is restricted to coastal areas of northwest Australia, as far south as Shark Bay, and through the tropical and subtropical areas of the north and east to New South Wales and Victoria. The species is only occasionally found extending their range to the southeast of South Australia.[6] The appearance of P. scapulatus in New Zealand is regarded as accidental.[3] The range of the Australian pteropodid bats is bounded by areas of lower rainfall and more temperate climate, this species and the other flying-foxes are absent from the south and west of the continent.[5]

The camps of P. scapulatus are found close to streams, they leave these at night to forage in woodland and forests in temperate to tropical regions.[6]

A well known colony exists at the Mataranka Hot Springs, an attraction that has also been discouraged from inhabiting the site for the odour of their camps.[5] Colonies of P. scapulatus are recognised as important contributors to woodland ecology, acting as a major pollinator of trees that provide nectar at night. The eucalypts and other trees of riparian zones in the Murray Darling Basin will also be visited in productive seasons. During the austral summer, colonies join the diverse species of bats around the Brisbane cityscape to feed on the blossoms of the pink bloodwood Corymbia intermedia. Along the Brisbane River they share many roost sites with the grey-headed fruit-bat, P. poliocephalus, most notable of these is the Indooroopilly Island, known to be an old bat campsite, whose occupants are seen flying around the area after dusk. They also occupy a well established colony at Ipswich, Queensland, close to that state's capital.[5]

Public perception

 src=
Hanging in a close group

This species of flying fox hangs in a different way from other mainland species. The larger species tend to hang an arm's length apart, but the little reds tend to clump together so they may hang in groups of 20 or more animals on an individual branch. So, these animals are associated with significant canopy and branch damage in camps where they reside. They also tend to appear in very large numbers (20,000 or more) and the footprint of a camp can expand rapidly for the several weeks or months they remain at a site. Their large numbers and the damage they cause to a camp site mean they are not very popular animals.

The opportunity presented by cultivated fruit trees to wandering little reds may encourage them to return in large numbers if the regular foods are not available, resulting in damage to fruit and trees; for this reason they have been perceived as a pest species by orchardists.[4] Negative public perception of the species has intensified with the discovery of three recently emerged zoonotic viruses that are potentially fatal to humans: Hendra virus, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), and Menangle virus.[9] There are few records of human fatality resulting from interaction with bats, limited to the rare and deadly incidence of ABLV, and their parasites find human hosts unsuitable.[5]

Conservation

 src=
Captives roosting together at Wellington Zoo

The animals are nomadic and difficult to track, as they tend not to live in urban areas. No accurate method in use currently can estimate the population to determine if the species is holding its own or is in decline. The species is very likely to be affected by the same factors that have seen the grey-headed flying fox and spectacled flying fox listed as threatened, that is, the destruction of foraging areas and roosting habitat.[10]

A new bridge built near Noosa Heads was skirted over by the species leaving a nearby roost, resulting in fatal collisions with motor vehicles travelling across it; a sign warning motorists at the Monks Bridge displays an image of the bat and has subsequently reduced the number of incidents.[5]

References

  1. ^ Eby, P.; Roberts, B. (2016). "Pteropus scapulatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T18758A22087637. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T18758A22087637.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b Peters, W. (1862). "Über einen neuen Flederhund Pteropus scapulatus, aus Neuholland". Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1862: 574–576.
  3. ^ a b Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  4. ^ a b c d Richards, G.C. (1983). "Sheathtail-bats Family Emballonuridae". In Strahan, R. (ed.). Complete book of Australian mammals. The national photographic index of Australian wildlife (1 ed.). London: Angus & Robertson. pp. 291–293. ISBN 0207144540.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Richards, G.C.; Hall, L.S.; Parish, S. (photography) (2012). A natural history of Australian bats : working the night shift. CSIRO Pub. pp. 13, 16, 24, 28, 30, 57, 66, 70, 95, 104, 105, 130, 146. ISBN 9780643103740.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Menkhorst, P.W.; Knight, F. (2011). A field guide to the mammals of Australia (3rd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780195573954.
  7. ^ a b "Little red flying-fox" accessed 3 July 2011 Archived 13 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "World's Weirdest: Flying Foxes". National Geographic Video. c. 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2013. Meet the little red flying fox, a bat with a wingspan of up to three feet. Its wings take a lot of work to maintain - and one missed approach while getting a drink can land this bat in the mouth of a crocodile.
  9. ^ Speare, Rick et al. (1997), p. 117.
  10. ^ "Little red flying-fox" accessed 3 July 2011
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Little red flying fox: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The little red flying-fox (Pteropus scapulatus) is a megachiropteran bat native to northern and eastern Australia. The species weighs about half a kilogram, one US pound, and is the smallest species of Pteropus in mainland Australia. P. scapulatus occurs at the coast and further inland, camping and flying to the tropical to temperate regions that provide them with an annual source of nectar. They exhibit an unusual method of obtaining drinking water during dry periods, skimming a stream's surface to gather it onto their fur while they are in flight.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN