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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 18 years (captivity) Observations: Lungfishes have been reported to live more than 20 years in captivity (Genade et al. 2005), but this has not been confirmed.
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Diagnostic Description

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Diagnosis: Protopterus annectens annectens has an elongate body and paired fins are long and filamentous (Ref. 81261). The trunk, with 34-37 ribs, is a bit longer and the tail a bit shorter compared to Protopterus annectens brieni (Ref. 40587).Description: Protopterus annectens annectens is characterized by an elongate body and a prominent snout (Ref. 2834, 81261). Eye small, its diameter comprised from 9 to 15 times in head length (Ref. 2834, 81261). Dorsal-fin origin closer to occiput than to anus; caudal fin pointed, but its tip often broken off; paired fins long and filamentous, the pectorals with a rather broad basal fringe, up to 3 times longer than the pelvic fins and up to twice longer than head (Ref. 367, 2834, 81261). External gills usually inserted behind the gill opening and above the anterior paired fin (Ref. 81261). Scales small, cycloid an embedded in the skin; 40-50 between gill opening and anus; 36-40 encircling the body in front of dorsal-fin origin (Ref. 2834, 3023, 81261).Colouration: Usually dark, olivaceous or brownish, lighter below; irregular dark spots on fins and body, except on belly (Ref. 367, 81261).
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Life Cycle

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Lungfish spawn in the swamps during the wet season; they build nests in which the eggs, white in colour and about 4 mm diameter, are laid; the young are cared for by the males (Ref. 13851). The larvae hatch in eight days, and leave the nest in twenty days (Ref. 41544).Males of Protopterus annectens brieni excavate an U-shaped burrow to a depth of nearly 60 cm for spawning purposes. The nest is usually placed amongst the roots of aquatic vegetation where the male will attend to several females during the breeding season. He will aerate the eggs with body and fin movements and afford protection to the young for a while after incubation (Ref. 13337).
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Migration

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Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Crispina B. Binohlan
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Biology

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Found in marginal swamps and backwaters of rivers and lakes (Ref. 30488). It is associated strongly with life of aquatic plants in terms of breeding and feeding ecologies (Ref. 30558). Nests are made in weedy areas (Ref. 30558). It normally lives on flood plains and when these dry up, during the dry season, it secretes a thin slime around itself which dries into a fragile cocoon; it can exist in this state for over a year, although normally it hibernates only from the end of one wet season to the start of the next (Ref. 3023, Ref. 30558). For hibernating the fish literally chews its way into the substrate ejecting mud out of its gill openings; it may reach a depth of 3-25 cm below the bottom depending on the length of the fish; the lungfish wriggles around, thereby hollowing out a bulb-shaped chamber and coming to rest with its nose pointing upward; they breathe air at the mouth of the chamber's tube and then sink back into the expanded part of the chamber (Ref. 36739). As the water disappears the respiratory trips cease; air reaches the fish via the tube to the surface (Ref. 36739). Also under aquatic conditions this lungfish can survive more than three and half years of starvation; it shows the same behavior - no motion and same body posture - as an aestivating specimen (Ref. 51339). Carnivorous, food includes mollusks (Ref. 30488), but also frogs, fish and seed (Ref. 13851); in Kenya it feeds mostly on plant material, like roots (Ref. 30558).
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Importance

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fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
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West African lungfish

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The West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens), also known as the Tana lungfish or simply African lungfish, is a species of African lungfish.[1][5] It is found in a wide range of freshwater habitats in West and Middle Africa, as well as the northern half of Southern Africa.[1][5]

Description

Protopterus annectens has a prominent snout and small eyes. Its body is long and eel-like, some 9–15 times the length of the head. It has two pairs of long, filamentous fins. The pectoral fins have a basal fringe and are about three times the head length, while its pelvic fins are about twice the head length. In general, three external gills are inserted posterior to the gill slits and above the pectoral fins.

It has cycloid scales embedded in the skin. About 40–50 scales occur between the operculum and the anus, and 36–40 around the body before the origin of the dorsal fin. It has 34–37 pairs of ribs. The dorsal side is olive or brown in color and the ventral side is lighter, with great blackish or brownish spots on the body and fins except on its belly.[6] They reach a length of about 1 m (3.3 ft) in the wild.[7]

Distribution

The West African lungfish is distributed throughout Africa.[8] It has two subspecies; P. a. annectens is found primarily in the basins of Sahel as well as Guinea and Sierra Leone whilst the other subspecies, P. a. brieni is known largely from the upper Congo River area and from the Zambezi of Mozambique.[8]

Habitat

Like other African lungfish, the West African lungfish is an obligate air breather and a freshwater-dwelling fish.[8] It is demersal, meaning that it lives primarily buried within riverbeds. Due to the dry season frequently drying the rivers and floodplains in which it lives, the West African lungfish can aestivate for up to a year; however the West African lungfish generally only aestivates between wet seasons.[8]

Diet

The Tana lungfish has a diet not unlike other lungfish, consisting of various mollusks, crabs, prawn, and small fish within its distribution.[8] It can also go for up to 3 1/2 years without any food intake whatsoever. During this time period it behaves much like an estivating fish in that it buries itself in the mud and does not move until more favorable conditions occur.[8]

LepidosirenFord.jpg

References

  1. ^ a b c Diouf, K.; Snoeks, J.; Lalèyè, P.; Contreras MacBeath, T. (2020). "Protopterus annectens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T169408A135027770. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T169408A135027770.en. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  2. ^ ITIS.gov (Retrieved May 13, 2010.)
  3. ^ Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Ceratodiformes – recent lungfishes". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  4. ^ Froese, R.; Pauly, D. (2017). "Protopteridae". FishBase version (02/2017). Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  5. ^ a b Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2014). "Protopterus annectens" in FishBase. April 2014 version.
  6. ^ EOL.org
  7. ^ Primitivefishes.com (Retrieved May 13, 2010.)
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Protopterus annectens summary page". FishBase. Retrieved 2015-06-08.

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West African lungfish: Brief Summary

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The West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens), also known as the Tana lungfish or simply African lungfish, is a species of African lungfish. It is found in a wide range of freshwater habitats in West and Middle Africa, as well as the northern half of Southern Africa.

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Protopterus annectens

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Protopterus annectens est une espèce de poissons osseux dipneuste africain.

L'étude de ce poisson capable d'estivation[1], et proche des premiers vertébrés à avoir pu respirer dans l'air a notamment permis de mettre en avant le phénomène de marche, ayant conduit à la conquête de la terre ferme par les premiers poissons munis de poumons : Protopterus annectens prend ainsi appui sur le substrat pour se déplacer, en activant soit simultanément, soit de manière alternative ses nageoires, voire en sautant[2].

Taille

Ce dipneuste africain adulte mesure au maximum 1 mètre de long.

Études

Des chercheurs danois ont récemment étudié cette espèce en raison de ses poumons qui lui permettent de respirer dans l'air, assez proches de ceux des premiers vertébrés terrestres, et parce que — comme les premiers animaux capables de marcher sur la terre — il n'a pas d'oreille moyenne[3].

Un dispositif expérimental a montré que via ses poumons, ce dipneuste perçoit des ondes de pression dans les fréquences supérieures à 200 Hz, ce qui pourrait être rendu possible par le fait que le système auditif du poisson s'accorde aux vibrations de l'air dans les poumons (démontré à 300 Hz, soit le niveau de sensibilité de l'audition du dipneuste[3]). D'autres tests faits avec des poissons dans l'air ont confirmé que ce poisson n'est pas tout à fait sourd dans l'air[3]. Le même groupe de chercheurs a montré que les salamandres qui ont des os d'oreille interne et une oreille interne primitive (sans tympan, à la différence des grenouilles ou crapauds), et « qui ont une configuration de l'oreille identique à celles trouvées chez certains des premiers fossiles d'animaux terrestres » peuvent entendre (sous l'eau : des fréquences supérieures à 120 Hz) via leur poumon, de manière plus efficace encore que le dipneuste[3].

Notes et références

  1. Janssens P.A (1964). The metabolism of the aestivating African lungfish. Comparative biochemistry and physiology, 11(1), 105-117
  2. La marche a commencé… sous l'eau, Pour la science, 21 décembre 2011
  3. a b c et d Brouillette, Monique (2015) Early land animals heard sounds with their lungs, Science Mag, Science ; 04 février 2015 ; DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa7805

Voir aussi

Références taxonomiques

Bibliographie

  • Babiker, M. M. (1979). Respiratory behaviour, oxygen consumption and relative dependence on aerial respiration in the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens, owen) and an air-breathing teleost (Clarias lazera, C.). Hydrobiologia, 65(2), 177-187 (résumé).
  • Babiker, M. M., & Rankin, J. C. (1979). Renal and vascular effects of neurohypophysial hormones in the African lungfish Protopterus annectens (Owen). General and comparative endocrinology, 37(1), 26-34 (résumé).
  • Boisson, C., Mattei, C., & Mattei, X. (1967). Troisième note sur la spermiogenèse de Protopterus annectens (Dipneuste) du Sénégal. Bull Inst Fr Afr Noire, 29, 1097-1121.
  • Boisson, C. (1963). La spermiogenèse de Protopterus annectens (Dipneuste) du Sénégal étudiée au microscope optique et quelques détails au microscope électronique. Ann. Fac. Sc. Dakar, 10, 43-72.
  • Budgett, J. S. (1901). On the Breeding‐habits of some West‐African Fishes, with an Account of the External Features in Development of Protopterus annectens, and a Description of the Larva of Polypterus lapradei. The Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 16(2), 115-136 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1901.tb00028.x/abstract résumé]).
  • Champy C & Louvel J (1940) Recherches sur l'hématopoïèse chez le" Protopterus annectens". Masson.
  • Clairambault P & Capanna E (1973) Suggestions for a revision of the cytoarchitectonics of the telencephalon of Protopterus, Protopterus annectens (Owen). Italian Journal of Zoology, 40(2), 149-171.
  • Dean F.D & Jones I?C (1959) Sex steroids in the lungfish (Protopterus annectens Owen). Journal of Endocrinology, 18(4), 366-371.
  • Derivot, J. H. (1984). Functional anatomy of the peripheral olfactory system of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens Owen: macroscopic, microscopic, and morphometric aspects. American journal of anatomy, 169(2), 177-192 (résumé).
  • Fulliquet, G. (1886). Recherches sur le cerveau du Protopterus annectens. C. Schuchardt.
  • Gabe, M. (1969). Données histologiques sur le pancréas endocrine de Protopterus annectens Owen. Arch. Anat. Microscop. Morphol. Expl, 58, 21-40.
  • Godet, R., & Dupé, M. (1965, January). Quelques aspects des relations neuro-endocriniennes chez Protopterus annectens (Poisson Dipneuste). In Archives d'anatomie microscopique et morphologique expérimentale (Vol. 54, No. 1, p. 319). 120 BLVD SAINT-GERMAIN, 75280 PARIS 06, France, Masson Ed.
  • Horner, A. M., & Jayne, B. C. (2008). The effects of viscosity on the axial motor pattern and kinematics of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) during lateral undulatory swimming. Journal of Experimental Biology, 211(10), 1612-1622.
  • Janssens P.A (1964). The metabolism of the aestivating African lungfish. Comparative biochemistry and physiology, 11(1), 105-117.
  • Johnels, A. G., & Svensson, G. S. O. (1954). On the biology of Protopterus annectens (Owen). Ark Zool, 7, 131-164.
  • King, J. A., Millar, R. P., Vallarino, M., & Pierantoni, R. (1995). Localization and characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormones in the brain, gonads, and plasma of a dipnoi (lungfish, Protopterus annectens). Regulatory peptides, 57(2), 163-174 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0167011595000257 résumé]).
  • Kitzan, S. M., & Sweeny, P. R. (1968). A light and electron microscope study of the structure of Protopterus annectens epidermis. I. Mucus production. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 46(4), 767-772 (résumé).
  • Lee, J., Lecaude, S., Danielson, P., Sollars, C., Alrubaian, J., Propper, C. R., ... & Dores, R. M. (1999). Cloning of proopiomelanocortin from the brain of the african lungfish, Protopterus annectens, and the brain of the western spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicatus. Neuroendocrinology, 70(1), 43-54 (résumé).
  • Loong, A. M., Hiong, K. C., Lee, S. M. L., Wong, W. P., Chew, S. F., & Ip, Y. K. (2005). Ornithine‐urea cycle and urea synthesis in African lungfishes, Protopterus aethiopicus and Protopterus annectens, exposed to terrestrial conditions for six days. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology, 303(5), 354-365 (résumé).
  • Loong, A. M., Pang, C. Y., Hiong, K. C., Wong, W. P., Chew, S. F., & Ip, Y. K. (2008). Increased urea synthesis and/or suppressed ammonia production in the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, during aestivation in air or mud. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 178(3), 351-363 (résumé).
  • Parker, W. N. (1890). On the Anatomy and Physiology of Protopterus annectens. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 49(296-301), 549-554 (PDF, 6 p).
  • Reiner, A., & Northcutt, R. G. (1987). An immunohistochemical study of the telencephalon of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 256(3), 463-481.
  • Sturla, M., Masini, M. A., Prato, P., Grattarola, C., & Uva, B. (2001). Mitochondria-rich cells in gills and skin of an African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. Cell and tissue research, 303(3), 351-358 (résumé).
  • Sturla, M., Paola, P., Carlo, G., Angela, M. M., & Maria, U. B. (2002). Effects of induced aestivation in Protopterus annectens: a histomorphological study. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 292(1), 26-31 (résumé).
  • Vallarino, M., Trabucchi, M., Masini, M. A., Chartrel, N., & Vaudry, H. (1997). Immunocytochemical localization of somatostatin and autoradiographic distribution of somatostatin binding sites in the brain of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 388(3), 337-353 (résumé).
  • Vallarino, M., Tranchand‐Bunel, D., Thoumas, J. L., Masini, M. A., Conlon, J. M., Fournier, A., ... & Vaudry, H. (1995) Neuropeptide tyrosine in the brain of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens: immunohistochemical localization and biochemical characterization. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 356(4), 537-551 (résumé).
  • Vallarino, M., Bunel, D. T., & Vaudry, H. (1992). Alpha‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone (α‐MSH) in the brain of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens: Immunohistochemical localization and biochemical characterization. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 322(2), 266-274 (résumé).
  • Wingstrand, K. G. (1956). The structure of the pituitary in the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens (Owen). Vidensk Medd Dansk Natur Foren Kbh, 118, 193-209.b
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Protopterus annectens: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia FR

Protopterus annectens est une espèce de poissons osseux dipneuste africain.

L'étude de ce poisson capable d'estivation, et proche des premiers vertébrés à avoir pu respirer dans l'air a notamment permis de mettre en avant le phénomène de marche, ayant conduit à la conquête de la terre ferme par les premiers poissons munis de poumons : Protopterus annectens prend ainsi appui sur le substrat pour se déplacer, en activant soit simultanément, soit de manière alternative ses nageoires, voire en sautant.

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서아프리카폐어

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서아프리카폐어(Protopterus annectens)는 아프리카폐어과에 속하는 폐어류의 일종이다.[1][3] 서아프리카중앙아프리카 그리고 남아프리카 북쪽 절반 윗쪽의 민물 서식지에 널리 분포한다.[1][3]

각주

  1. “Protopterus annectens”. 《멸종 위기 종의 IUCN 적색 목록. 2008판》 (영어). 국제 자연 보전 연맹. 2007. 2010년 7월 16일에 확인함. P. annectens has been assessed as Least Concern because it has a very large range, and there are no known widespread threats to the species.
  2. ITIS.gov (Retrieved May 13, 2010.)
  3. (영어) Froese, Rainer; Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014) "Protopterus annectens". 피시베이스. 2014년 4월 판.
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