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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 13.4 years (captivity) Observations: Although there are unverified reports of animals living up to 15 years (David Macdonald 1985), the record longevity in captivity is 13.4 years (Richard Weigl 2005). Considering the longevity of similar species, however, maximum longevity may be underestimated.
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Behavior

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These lemurs are not reported to be highly vocal, but do emit some calls. Tactile communication is of importance between rivals and mates, as well as between offspring and their mother. Such communication may include grooming, playing, and aggression. Urine is used for scent marking, indicating that some chemical communication is used. Although not specifically reported for this species, visual communication, through body postures, etc, is usually used by primates.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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Greater dwarf lemurs are under a low degree of threat. The total population is estimated to be over 100,000 animals (Mittermeier et al., 1992). Densities range from 75 to 110 animals/sq km (Nowak, 1999). In an IUCN evaluation of the lemurs of Madagascar completed in 1992, greater dwarf lemurs were not listed as a High Priority or Priority species. This species can be found in many of the parks in Madagascar (Mittermeier et al., 1992).

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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There is no known adverse affect on humans.

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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There is no known positive benefit to human economies. However, it has been reported that local people sometimes keep these lemurs as pets. They are quite affectionate once habituated, and come when called.

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Associations

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These creatures are inadequately studied, so little is known about thier role in the ecosystem. However, it is likely that they have some impact on insect populations through predation. They may help to disperse seeds from the fruits they eat, and they may help to polinate plants when the forage for nectar. To the extent that these animals are preyed upon by others, they may have some impact on predator populations.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds; pollinates

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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Greater dwarf lemurs are omnivorous. They usually feed on fruits, flowers, and nectar (Nowak, 1999). The diet sometimes also includes insects and small vertebrates (Grzimek, 1988). Greater dwarf lemurs may also eat honey (Cockram, 1962).

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; amphibians; eggs; insects

Plant Foods: fruit; nectar; flowers

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Greater dwarf lemurs are found in the eastern and northern parts of Madagascar. They might also inhabit a section of west-central Madagascar. (Nowak, 1999)

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Greater dwarf lemurs are arboreal (Cockram, 1962). They inhabit forests and can also be found in dry scrub areas (Grzimek, 1988; Hill, 1953).

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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A closely related animal, Cheirogaleus medius is reported to have lived nearly 20 years in captivity. It is likely that C. major has a similar maximum lifespan.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
15.0 years.

Average lifespan
Sex: female
Status: captivity:
10.0 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
15.0 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
8.7 years.

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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The length of the head and body range from 167 to 264 mm, with a mass between 167 and 600 g. The tail is longer than the body and has a length between 195 and 310 mm (Cockram, 1962; Nowak, 1999). The tail is broad at the base and tapers to the end. They eyes are large and conspicuous eyes, with a reflective tapetum lucidum for night vision (Grzimek, 1988). A black ring of hair surrounds the eyes. The ears are thin and have small, sparse hairs (Hill, 1953). Thick fur covers the rest of the body. The fur varies from gray to reddish brown on the head, back, and tail. The rump of greater dwarf lemurs is white and usually has a yellow tint (Nowak, 1999).

Range mass: 177 to 600 g.

Range length: 167 to 264 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Associations

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Specific predators of these animals have not been reported. However, many different tenrecs, fossas, and civets may prey upon these small primates. In addition, nocturnal birds of prey and snakes may also feed upon them.

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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The mating system of these animals is not known. Cheirogaleus major is reported to be solitary, with males demonstrating intolerance for one another. This suggests that mating is either monogamous or polygynous.

The estrus period of females lasts 2 to 3 days and mating usually occurs in October or November. Gestation period takes 70 days (Nowak, 1999). In December or January, females give birth in a tree cavity that is padded with leaves. Litter sizes of 2 or 3 are common. young are weaned around 45 days of age, and reach sexual maturity by the age of 10 to 14 months.

Breeding interval: It is likely that these animals breed once per year.

Breeding season: Mating usually occurs in October or November.

Range number of offspring: 2 to 3.

Average gestation period: 70 days.

Average weaning age: 45 days.

Average time to independence: 1.5 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 10 to 14 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 18.1 g.

Average gestation period: 65 days.

Average number of offspring: 2.2.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
365 days.

Females build nests where they give birth to their offspring. Offspring are fully furred at birth and have open eyes. By 3 to 4 weeks, they begin climbing and can trail after their mother (Grzimek, 1988). The period of nursing is 45 days (Nowak, 1999). A month and a half after birth, the offspring no longer rely on the mother (Grzimek, 1988).

Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female)

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Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
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Arthur Cooper, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Nancy Shefferly, Animal Diversity Web
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Greater dwarf lemur

provided by wikipedia EN

The greater dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus major), or the Geoffroy's dwarf lemur, is a lemur that is widely distributed over the primary and secondary forests near the eastern coast of Madagascar. They are also found in northern parts of Madagascar. Greater dwarf lemurs live in forests and dry scrub areas. The head and body of the greater dwarf lemur can range from 167 to 264 millimeters in length, and 164 to 600 grams. Their tails can range from 195 to 310 millimeters in length.[4]

Greater dwarf lemurs are nocturnal. During the day, they sleep in nests of twigs, leaves, and grass, or hollowed sections of trees padded with dry leaves.[4]

Their diet consists mostly of fruits, flowers, and nectar. Flower nectar is an important part of the diet from November to December. Sometimes they will also eat insects and small vertebrates. During the dry seasons they will store fat in their tail and become dormant.[5]

Its fur is short, dense, grey or reddish brown, and there are dark circles of fur around the eyes. At the end of the wet season the tail will become somewhat swollen with fat.[4]

The greater dwarf lemur is preyed upon by the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) during the dormant season. Other predators the Malagasy tree boa (Boa manditra), the Madagascar buzzard (Buteo brachypterus),[6] and it is thought probably by the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) as well, since the latter preys on other lemurs.[7]

Locomotion

The greater dwarf lemur is an arboreal quadruped, it moves along the horizontal branches with a regular gait pattern involving all four limbs. They are not agile leapers.[5]

Mating

Mating occurs in October with births from November to February. Mothers build nests to give birth to their offspring that average in height from six to twelve meters. They generally give birth to twins. Mothers carry infants in their mouths.[8]

Vocalization

Greater dwarf lemurs are not very vocal. They make soft calls to locate others.[5]

Taxonomy

ChirogaleusMiliiSmit.jpg

Between 2000 and 2009, populations of dwarf lemur around Tamatave, Tampira, Mahambo, Ancaya, Ambodivoangy, and Fesi Malendo were known as a separate species, the greater iron-gray dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus ravus). It was described as having a pelage coloration that is iron-gray with brownish tones, a vague dorsal stripe, white feet, a tail with a white tip, and dark ears that are either naked or sparsely covered with hair. However, in 2009, Groeneveld et al. demonstrated genetically that Cheirogaleus ravus was a synonym of Cheirogaleus major, so the greater iron-gray dwarf lemur is no longer recognized as a species.[9][10]

References

  1. ^ a b Blanco, M.; Borgerson, C.; Dolch, R.; Donati, G.; Ganzhorn, J.; Greene, L.K.; Le Pors, B.; Lewis, R.; Louis, E.E.; Rafalinirina, H.A.; Raharivololona, B.; Rakotoarisoa, G.; Ralison, J.; Randriahaingo, H.N.T.; Rasoloarison, R.M.; Razafindrasolo, M.; Sgarlata, G.M.; Wright, P.; Zaonarivelo, J. (2020). "Cheirogaleus major". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T54778911A115588708. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T54778911A115588708.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ Harcourt, C. (1990). Thornback, J (ed.). Lemurs of Madagascar and the Comoros: The IUCN Red Data Book (PDF). World Conservation Union. ISBN 978-2-88032-957-0. OCLC 28425691.
  3. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  4. ^ a b c Cooper, A. 2000. "Cheirogaleus major" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed July 25, 2012 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cheirogaleus_major.html
  5. ^ a b c "Greater Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleus major)". Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  6. ^ Goodman, S. M.; O'Conner, S.; Langrand, O. (1993). "A review of predation on lemurs: Implications for the evolution of social behavior in small, nocturnal primates". Lemur Social Systems and their Ecological Basis: 51–66.
  7. ^ Wright, P. C.; et al. (1997). "Predation on Milne Edwards Sifaka (Propithecus diadema edwardsi) by the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) in the rainforest of southeastern Madagascar". Folia Primatologica. 68 (1): 34–43. doi:10.1159/000157230. PMID 9170643.
  8. ^ "AnAge entry for Cheirogaleus major". Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  9. ^ Mittermeier, R.A.; Louis, E.E.; Richardson, M.; Schwitzer, C.; et al. (2010). Lemurs of Madagascar. Illustrated by S.D. Nash (3rd ed.). Conservation International. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-934151-23-5. OCLC 670545286.
  10. ^ Groeneveld, L.F.; Weisrock, D.W.; Rasoloarison, R.M.; Yoder, A.D.; Kappeler, P.M. (2009). "Species delimitation in lemurs: multiple genetic loci reveal low levels of species diversity in the genus Cheirogaleus" (PDF). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9 (30): 30. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-30. PMC 2652444. PMID 19193227.
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Greater dwarf lemur: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The greater dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus major), or the Geoffroy's dwarf lemur, is a lemur that is widely distributed over the primary and secondary forests near the eastern coast of Madagascar. They are also found in northern parts of Madagascar. Greater dwarf lemurs live in forests and dry scrub areas. The head and body of the greater dwarf lemur can range from 167 to 264 millimeters in length, and 164 to 600 grams. Their tails can range from 195 to 310 millimeters in length.

Greater dwarf lemurs are nocturnal. During the day, they sleep in nests of twigs, leaves, and grass, or hollowed sections of trees padded with dry leaves.

Their diet consists mostly of fruits, flowers, and nectar. Flower nectar is an important part of the diet from November to December. Sometimes they will also eat insects and small vertebrates. During the dry seasons they will store fat in their tail and become dormant.

Its fur is short, dense, grey or reddish brown, and there are dark circles of fur around the eyes. At the end of the wet season the tail will become somewhat swollen with fat.

The greater dwarf lemur is preyed upon by the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) during the dormant season. Other predators the Malagasy tree boa (Boa manditra), the Madagascar buzzard (Buteo brachypterus), and it is thought probably by the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) as well, since the latter preys on other lemurs.

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Cheirogaleus major

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Grand Chirogale

Le Grand Chirogale (Cheirogaleus major) est une espèce de primates lémuriformes appartenant à la famille des Cheirogaleidae .

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큰난쟁이여우원숭이

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큰난쟁이여우원숭이(Cheirogaleus major)는 마다가스카르 동부 해안 근처의 1차숲 또는 2차숲에 널리 분포하는 여우원숭이의 일종이다.[2] 털은 회색 또는 적갈색을 띠며, 눈 주위에 다크 서클이 있다. 우기철이 끝나기는 시기에, 저장하고 있는 지방 때문에 꼬리가 부풀어오른다. 줄무늬꼬리몽구스(Galidia elegans)와 마다가스카르말똥가리(Buteo brachypterus)의 먹이가 되거나,[3] 포사 (Cryptoprocta ferox)의 먹이가 되는 것으로 보인다. 마다가스카르말똥가리는 다른 여우원숭이들의 포식자가 되기도 한다.[4]

각주

  1. “Cheirogaleus major”. 《멸종 위기 종의 IUCN 적색 목록. 2014.1판》 (영어). 국제 자연 보전 연맹. 2014. 2014년 6월 15일에 확인함.
  2. Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., 편집. 《Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference》 (영어) 3판. 존스 홉킨스 대학교 출판사. 112쪽. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  3. Goodman, S. M., O'Conner, S., Langrand, O. (1993). “A review of predation on lemurs: Implications for the evolution of social behavior in small, nocturnal primates”. 《Lemur Social Systems and their Ecological Basis》: 51–66.
  4. Wright, P. C.; 외. (1997). “Predation on Milne Edwards Sifaka (Propithecus diadema edwardsi) by the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) in the rainforest of southeastern Madagascar”. 《Folia Primatologica》 68 (1): 34–43. doi:10.1159/000157230.
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큰난쟁이여우원숭이: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

큰난쟁이여우원숭이(Cheirogaleus major)는 마다가스카르 동부 해안 근처의 1차숲 또는 2차숲에 널리 분포하는 여우원숭이의 일종이다. 털은 회색 또는 적갈색을 띠며, 눈 주위에 다크 서클이 있다. 우기철이 끝나기는 시기에, 저장하고 있는 지방 때문에 꼬리가 부풀어오른다. 줄무늬꼬리몽구스(Galidia elegans)와 마다가스카르말똥가리(Buteo brachypterus)의 먹이가 되거나, 포사 (Cryptoprocta ferox)의 먹이가 되는 것으로 보인다. 마다가스카르말똥가리는 다른 여우원숭이들의 포식자가 되기도 한다.

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