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Comments

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This is a polymorphic species occurring naturally from Africa to India. Some superior strains have been selected and distributed in warm parts of the world for pasture and fodder in dry areas (Buffel Grass), and the grass has become a widespread weed. It was introduced to Taiwan as a pasture grass, and is now naturalized in the south of that island.

Cenchrus ciliaris may easily be mistaken for a species of Penni-setum, as the basal fusion of the bristles is rather slight. However, the flattening and grooving of the bristles around the spikelets is a characteristic feature of Cenchrus and is not found in Pennisetum.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 552, 553 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Comments

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African Foxtail Grass, Blue Buffalo Grass or Buffet Grass in a valuable fodder grass, especially for hay. It is also said to be a useful lawn grass.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 241 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Perennial, tufted or shortly rhizomatous. Culms erect or ascending from a decumbent or stoloniferous base, slender to moderately stout, sometimes much branched, up to 1 m tall. Leaf sheaths glabrous or pubescent; leaf blades linear, green or grayish, 10–50 × 0.4–0.8 cm, with scattered, tubercle-based hairs; ligule 0.5–3 mm. Inflorescence 3–15 cm, densely bristly, burrs contiguous, rachis puberulous. Burrs composed of many bristles; bristles antrorsely barbed; inner bristles 7–14 mm (one stouter and slightly longer), connate at extreme base to form a shallow disc 0.5–1.5 mm wide, somewhat flattened around spikelets, grooved on outer face, ciliate on inner margins, tips extended into flexuous bristles clearly exceeding spikelets; outer bristles numerous, shorter, slender. Spikelets 1–4 in burr, 3–5 mm; lower glume 1/3–1/2 spikelet length; upper glume ca. 1/2 spikelet length. 2n = 36.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 552, 553 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Description

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Perennial, often forming mats or tussocks; culms 10-150 cm high, ascending, wiry or sometimes almost woody. Leaf blades 3-25 cm long, 2-10 mm wide. Panicle cylindrical to ovoid, 2-12 cm long, 10-26 mm wide, grey, purple or straw-coloured, the rhachis angular and puberulous; involucre elongate, 6-16 mm long; inner bristles greatly exceeding the spikelets, one of them longer and stouter than the rest, at least the longest somewhat flattened at the base, connate only at the base to form a disc 0.5-1.5 mm in diameter (or sometimes connate for up to 0.5 mm above the rim of the disc), sparsely or densely ciliate below, grooved on the face or not, filiform above, flexuous, often wavy, antrorsely scaberulous; outer bristles filiform. Spikelets 2-4 per burr, 2-5.5 mm long, acutely lanceolate; glumes distinct, acute, the lower as long as the spikelet.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 241 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Distribution

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Distribution: Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan, Punjab & N.W.F.P.); throughout Africa, extending through Arabia and the Middle East to India; widely introduced else-where in the Old World.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 241 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Flower/Fruit

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Fl. & Fr. Per.: February-March.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 241 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Habitat & Distribution

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Pastures and weedy places, introduced. Taiwan [native to India, Pakistan; Africa, SW Asia; introduced in America and Australia].
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 552, 553 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Pennisetum ciliare (Linnaeus) Link.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 552, 553 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

Pennisetum ciliare

African Foxtail grass

Location: Southern Arizona and most of Sonora

Elevation: Sea Level to 4150 ft

Description: Buffelgrass is 1.5 feet tall and up to 3 feet tall. Buffelgrass is a threat and grows densely, competing for water with native plants that are around the same size. Buffelgrass is a major seed producer and the seeds spread and grow rapidly. Buffelgrass is a drought-tolerant perennial. This is primarily warm-season grass and is invasive to Arizona . Its origins are native to Africa, Middle East, Indonesia and nearby islands of Indonesia, as well as, tropical Asia. It was brought to the US in the 1930 for livestock feed.

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Cenchrus ciliaris

provided by wikipedia EN

Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel-grass[2] or African foxtail grass; syn. Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link) is a species of grass native to most of Africa, southern Asia (east to India), southern Iran, and the extreme south of Europe (Sicily).[3] Other names by which this grass is known include dhaman grass, anjan grass, koluk katai and buffelgrass.[4][5]

Description

African foxtail grass is a perennial grass growing to 20 to 120 cm (10 to 50 in) tall. The leaves are linear, 3 to 25 cm (1 to 10 in) long and 4 to 10 mm (0.16 to 0.39 in) wide. The flowers are produced in a panicle 2 to 14 cm (0.8 to 5.5 in) long and 1 to 2.6 cm (0.4 to 1.0 in) wide.[6]

Distribution

African foxtail grass is native to tropical Africa, the Mediterranean region and the hotter and drier parts of Asia. It is a deep-rooted grass, tolerates drought, and will grow at altitudes of up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft). It is considered a good forage grass in Africa. It prefers light soils with a high phosphorus content. It is also sown in Queensland, Australia and elsewhere for grazing, hay and silage.[4] It was introduced to the Sonoran Desert for erosion control and to feed livestock. In the Mexican part of the Sonoran Desert, it is still being planted and irrigated for livestock grazing. Cenchrus ciliaris has become naturalised and often an invasive species in Australia, the southwestern United States, Hawaii, Mexico, Central America, South America, and Macaronesia.[3]

As an invasive species

It was introduced in the 1930s into Arizona, United States, to provide grazing. The introduction was largely unsuccessful but the grass began to appear as a weed beside highways and in cleared fields or over-grazed land. It spreads very quickly and will often kill local native plants, such as palo verdes, by taking away nearby water. This plant has a very low ignition threshold and can burn even during the peak growing season. Its flammability (injurious to neighbors) and quick regrowth allow it to compete successfully against almost all vegetation in the Sonoran Desert region.[7]

Another problem of buffelgrass in the Sonoran Desert is that it intensifies wildfires such that saguaro cacti that normally survive wildfires can erupt into flames when growing in areas taken over by the grass.[8]

In Queensland, Australia, the grass has also been attributed to causing a decline in the native grass species fed on by the critically endangered northern hairy-nosed wombat, and cited as a factor in the wombats' decline.[9] In South Australia, it is a declared plant under the Natural Resources Management Act and weed management activities are guided by the South Australia Buffel Grass Strategic Plan (2012–17).[10] In Australia's Northern Territory, invasive buffel grass was implicated in making fire control more challenging following the extensive wild fires that destroyed ancient trees in oases such as Standley Chasm in February 2019.[11][12]

References

  1. ^ Allen, R. (2017). "Cenchrus ciliaris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T13490705A13490709. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T13490705A13490709.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  2. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ a b "Cenchrus ciliaris". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Cenchrus ciliaris L." Grassland species: Profiles. FAO. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  5. ^ "Buffelgrass". www.desertmuseum.org. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  6. ^ Clayton, W.D.; Vorontsova, M.S.; Harman, K.T.; Williamson, H. "Cenchrus ciliaris". GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  7. ^ Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum: Buffelgrass.
  8. ^ "Scientists believe invasive grass poses a threat in Bighorn Fire". ktar.com. June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  9. ^ Marshall, V.M.; Lewis, M.M.; Ostendorf, B. (2012-03-01). "Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) as an invader and threat to biodiversity in arid environments: A review". Journal of Arid Environments. 78: 1–12. Bibcode:2012JArEn..78....1M. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.11.005. ISSN 0140-1963.
  10. ^ "Buffel Grass". Primary Industries and Regions South Australia. Primary Industries and Regions South Australia. 13 February 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  11. ^ https://www.alicespringsnews.com.au/2019/02/11/west-macs-blaze-questions-and-sorrow/
  12. ^ "The summer bushfires you didn't hear about, and the invasive species fuelling them". NITV.

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Cenchrus ciliaris: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel-grass or African foxtail grass; syn. Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link) is a species of grass native to most of Africa, southern Asia (east to India), southern Iran, and the extreme south of Europe (Sicily). Other names by which this grass is known include dhaman grass, anjan grass, koluk katai and buffelgrass.

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