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Loblolly Pine

Pinus taeda L.

Comments

provided by eFloras
Originally most races of Pinus taeda were in the lowlands. Following disturbance of the natural vegetation after settlement by Europeans, the species spread to fine-textured, fallow, upland soils, where it now occurs intermixed with P . echinata and P . virginiana . In the Southeast P . taeda is commonly used in plantation forestry, along with P . elliottii and P . echinata . Pinus taeda frequently forms hybrids with P . echinata and P . palustris ( P . ´ sondereggeri H.H. Chapman). Commercially, it is a valuable pulpwood and timber species.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Description

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Trees to 46m; trunk to 1.6m diam., usually straight, without adventitious shoots; crown broadly conic to rounded. Bark red-brown, forming square or irregularly rectangular, scaly plates, resin pockets absent. Branches spreading-ascending; twigs moderately slender (to ca. 1cm thick), orangish to yellow-brown, aging darker brown, rough. Buds lance-cylindric, pale red-brown, 1--1.2(--2)cm, mostly less than 1cm broad, slightly resinous; scale margins white-fringed, apex acuminate. Leaves 2--3 per fascicle, ascending to spreading, persisting 3 years, (10--)12--18(--23)cm ´ 1--2mm, straight, slightly twisted, pliant, deep yellow-green, all surfaces with narrow stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex acute to abruptly conic-subulate; sheath 1--2.5cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 20--40mm, yellow to yellow-brown. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds soon thereafter, not persistent, solitary or in small clusters, nearly terminal, symmetric, lanceoloid before opening, narrowly ovoid when open, 6--12cm, mostly dull yellow-brown, sessile to nearly sessile, scales without dark border on adaxial surface distally; apophyses dull, slightly thickened, variously raised (more so toward cone base), rhombic, strongly transversely keeled; umbo central, recurved, stoutly pyramidal, tapering to stout-based, sharp prickle. Seeds obdeltoid; body 5--6mm, red-brown; wing to 20mm. 2 n =24.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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visit source
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eFloras

Description

provided by eFloras
Trees to 45 m tall; trunk to 1.6 m d.b.h. in native range; bark red-brown, forming square or irregularly oblong, scaly plates; crown broadly conical or rounded; branchlets orangish or yellow-brown, aging darker brown, ca. 1 cm in diam., rough; winter buds pale red-brown, conical-cylindric, slightly resinous, scales white fringed at margin. Needles ascending or spreading, dark yellow-green, slightly twisted, (10-)12-18(-23) cm × 1-2 mm, pliant, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, base with persistent sheath 1-2.5 cm, margin finely serrulate. Seed cones nearly terminal, solitary or in small clusters, sessile or subsessile, mostly dull yellow-brown, narrowly ovoid when open, 6-12 cm, maturing in 2 years, then soon shedding seeds. Seed scales without dark border adaxially distally; apophyses dull, rhombic, slightly thickened, variously raised but more so toward base of cone, strongly cross keeled; umbo strongly pyramidal, recurved, tapering to a stoutly based, sharp prickle. Seeds red-brown, obdeltoid, 5-6 mm; wing to 2 cm.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 20 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Habitat & Distribution

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Mesic lowlands and swamp borders to dry uplands; 0--700m; Ala., Ark., Del., Fla, Ga., Ky., La., Md., Miss., N.J., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
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eFloras

Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivated. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong (Guangzhou Shi), Guangxi, Henan, Hubei (Wuhan Shi), Hunan, Jiangsu (Nanjing Shi), Jiangxi (Lu Shan), Taiwan, Zhejiang [native to SE United States]
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 20 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: litter

A low-severity, slow-moving fire in thick litter can cause severe basal
scorch.  Such a fire in east Texas burned deep depressions in the bark
of merchantable-sized loblolly pine.  Ten percent of the stand died
directly from the fire or from insect infestation of fire wounds [24].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: prescribed fire

Contrary to other findings, growth after a prescribed fire in Louisiana
was greater in trees with one-third or less crown scorch than in trees
with no crown scorch [54].  In effect, the fire pruned the lower
branches, which have low photosynthetic efficiency.

Loblolly pine growth may be more sensitive to the amount of soil
moisture available early in the growing season than it is to fire damage
[41].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
loblolly pine
old field pine
North Carolina pine
Arkansas pine
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: tree

Loblolly pine is a medium- to large-sized native, evergreen conifer with
platy bark and a long, straight, cylindrical bole.  Cones have short,
stout, triangular spines.  Loblolly pine grows rapidly, and is 90 to 110
feet (27-34 m) tall and 24 to 30 inches (61-76 cm) in diameter at
maturity.  Loblolly pine is a medium-lived tree [3].  It grows a 4 to 5
foot (1.2-1.5 m) taproot in deep, sandy or loamy soil, but the taproot
is much shorter and stouter in clayey soil.  In large trees, the lateral
root spread is often greater than the crown spread [59].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Loblolly pine is widely distributed in the southeastern United States
from southern New Jersey to central Florida and west through the Gulf
States to eastern Texas.  It also occurs in southeastern Oklahoma,
central Arkansas, and southern Tennessee.  It is found in the Piedmont
Plateau, the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the southern extent of the
Cumberland Plateau, and the Valley-and-Ridge Province of the Appalachian
Highlands [3,40].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire regime, low-severity fire, tree

Loblolly pine is considered fire resistant [9,56].  Mature loblolly pine
survives low- to moderate-severity fires because of relatively thick bark
and tall crowns.  Loblolly pine's fire resistance increases with bark
thickness and tree diameter.  Young pines become resistant to
low-severity fire by age 10 [59].  Needles are low in resin and not
highly flammable [36].  Loblolly pine can endure some fire defoliation
[9].  It is not as fire resistant as longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) or
slash pine (P. elliottii) [28].  Abundant regeneration occurs on soil
exposed by fire [7].  Once loblolly pine is big enough to resist fire
damage, frequent summer fire will create and maintain a pine-grassland
community [63].

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: backfire, basal area, competition, fire management, flame length, forest, fuel, hardwood, litter, prescribed fire, series, succession

Prescribed fire is used in loblolly pine stands for seedbed preparation,
hardwood control, fuel reduction, and thinning.  Unless thinning of
seedlings is desired, stands should not be burned before they are large
enough to withstand injury.  To avoid crown scorch, loblolly pine should
be 10 to 15 years old, 15 to 20 feet (4.6-6.1 m) tall, and have a bark
thickness of 0.3 to 0.4 inch (0.8-1.0 cm) before being burned for the
first time [2,7,41,37,59,65].  To avoid mortality but not crown scorch,
trees smaller than 8 feet (2.4 m) tall or less than 2 inches (5 cm) in
diameter at groundline should not be burned [11].  The first fire is
difficult because of excess fuel build-up and danger to young pines.  A
backfire should be used in cool weather and high moisture conditions.

Hardwood control:  Hardwoods smaller than 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter
can usually be controlled by frequent fire [62].  Hardwood recovery
takes 5 to 10 years, depending on the site quality.  Using prescribed
fire every 5 years or when 25 percent of the largest hardwood stems are
approaching 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter is recommended [41,42].

A single winter fire is effective at controlling 1-inch-diameter (2.5
cm) hardwoods [41]; periodic winter fires can control hardwoods up to 2
inches (5 cm) in diameter; and a summer fire can control hardwoods up to
4 inches (10 cm) in diameter [59].  Although prescribed burns are
usually conducted during winter to avoid injury to loblolly pine, summer
burning is a more effective control of hardwood competition [23].
Twenty years of annual summer burning completely eradicated hardwoods
from a loblolly pine forest in South Carolina [62,63].  However, a
series of annual winter fires will not eradicate hardwoods because root
stocks are not killed.  Three annual summer fires at mid-rotation,
followed by periodic winter fires may be an effective means of hardwood
control [42].  Infrequent low-severity surface fires may speed up
succession to hardwoods by increasing the number of hardwood sprouts
[14].

Seedbed preparation:  A low-severity summer prescribed fire,
approximately 1 month before seedfall, is the most effective seedbed
preparation [19,41,42,57].  If only a winter fire is used, hardwoods
have an entire growing season before loblolly pine seedfall [41,57].  A
winter fire 1 to 2 years prior to a summer fire is suggested to reduce
fuel buildup.  A winter fire, followed by three annual summer fires just
before harvest, was very effective [52].  Brown and burn treatments have
also proven effective [6].

Thinning:  Prescribed burning has been used successfully to thin young
loblolly pine stands.  However, the forest manager risks damaging the
entire stand and reducing the growth rate.  A prescribed fire in South
Carolina resulted in a 58 percent reduction in stems per acre and near 0
percent mortality in 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter and larger saplings [61].
Thinning with fire should only be done in stands with a wide range of
diameters [45].

Disease and insects:  In the Coastal Plain, prescribed burning before
and after thinning reduced infection by root rot (Heterobasidion
annosum).  The fire destroyed litter which is associated with sporophore
development of H. annosum.  A fungal competitor (Trichloderma spp.)
increased in the soil after burning and may have contributed to the
reduced infection [25].

Fire wounds 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) wide and larger can result in cull
from fungi, insect action, or high amounts of resin [26].  The black
turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus terebrans) attacked trees with fire
wounds in east Texas [24].

Nutrients:  It is unclear whether prescribed fire on loblolly pine sites
will increase or decrease the available nitrogen.  Fire volatilizes
nitrogen in the soil, and repeated burning on infertile sites may limit
productivity [33].  However, decomposition of burned material increases
the available nitrogen content of soil.  Consequently, light prescribed
fire may be a low-cost alternative to fertilizer [50,64].


FIRE CASE STUDY
SPECIES: Pinus taeda
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION :
Carey, Jennifer H., compiler. 1992. Hardwood control for loblolly pine seedbed
preparation in Georgia. In: Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System,
[Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: https://www.fs.fed.us
/database/feis/ [
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months[1] = "February";
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months[3] = "April";
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months[6] = "July";
months[7] = "August";
months[8] = "September";
months[9] = "October";
months[10] = "November";
months[11] = "December";
var date = new Date();
var year = date.getFullYear();
var month = date.getMonth();
var day = date.getDate();
document.write(year+", "+months[month]+" "+day);
].


REFERENCE :
Brender, Ernst V.; Cooper, Robert W. 1968. Prescribed burning in
Georgia's Piedmont loblolly pine stands. Journal of Forestry. 66(1):
31-36. [8].


SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION :
Summer strip head fire/low- to moderate-severity
Summer backfire/low-severity
Winter strip head fire/low- to moderate-severity
Winter backfire/low-severity


STUDY LOCATION :
The study was conducted in the Hitchiti Experimental Forest near Macon,
Georgia, in the rolling hills of the lower Piedmont.


PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY :
The overstory consisted of 100 square feet basal area per acre (23 sq
m/ha) of 40-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).  Small understory
hardwoods included flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), sweetgum
(Liquidambar styraciflua), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), hawthorn
(Crataegus spp.), oak (Quercus spp.), hickory (Carya spp.), and winged
elm (Ulmus alata).  There were 750 small hardwoods per acre (1,850/ha)
from 0.6 to 6.5 inches (1.5-16.5 cm) in diameter and approximately 5,000
smaller stems per acre (12,000/ha).  Hardwoods made up 22 square feet
basal area per acre (5 sq m/ha).


TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE :
NO-ENTRY


SITE DESCRIPTION :
The terrain was gently rolling with 10 to 20 percent slope.  Litter
accumulation was 4 to 8 tons per acre (9-18 metric tons/ha) of which
approximately 10 to 45 percent was hardwood litter.  The humus type was
shallow duff-mull.


FIRE DESCRIPTION :
Twenty plots of 1.5 acres (0.6 ha) each were randomly assigned to 5
different treatments:  summer backfire, summer strip head fire, winter
backfire, winter strip head fire, and no fire.  Backfires were run down
slope and head fires up slope.  A complete stand inventory by species
and 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter classes, a tally of stems less than 0.6
inches (1.5 cm) on 15 milacre quadrants, and litter fuel weights and
moisture were taken before and after the fire.  The following
fire-weather measurements were taken:  wind direction and speed, air
temperature, relative humidity, rate of flame spread, flame length,
depth of fire front, and time-temperature relationships at 1- and 4-foot
(0.3-1.2 m) heights.  Soil erosion and seedling regeneration in milacre
quadrants were evaluated after the fire.  Each plot was further
subdivided for repeat fires.  The repeat fire data will not be discussed
here because of difficulties and inconsistencies encountered with the
fires.

The following tables present fire data:

fire            rate of spread   litter consumption   energy release
                   ft/min             percent          Btu/min/ft

winter back          1.4                 38              1232
summer back          1.2                 46              1200
winter strip         8.8                 40              8448
summer strip        10.0                 53             11200

fire                temperature       duration
                      deg. C           

winter strip-1 ft      255            24 seconds above 200 degrees
winter strip-4 ft      130            43 seconds above 100 degrees
summer strip-1 ft      480            22 seconds above 400 degrees
summer strip-4 ft      220            27 seconds above 200 degrees



FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES :
Summer fires top-killed more hardwoods than winter fires.  The following
table shows the percentage of hardwoods top-killed by summer and winter
fires:

d.b.h. class    summer kill    winter kill
  inches          percent        percent

     1              96             73
     2              64             73
     3              33             12
     4              18              7
     5              15              8
     6              13              0

There was no significant difference in percent hardwoods top-killed
between backfires and strip head fires.

Fuel consumption was greater in the summer than in the winter.

Loblolly pine seedlings were more abundant and better distributed on burned
plots than unburned plots.  Seedlings were also more abundant on plots burned in
the summer than in the winter.  The percent milacre stocking of
seedlings was 57 percent on the control, 77 percent on the winter fire
plots, and 90 percent on the summer fire plots.

Soil erosion was minimal, and no difference was found between season or
method of burning.


FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS :
A single strip fire in the summer is the best method for removing
hardwoods and preparing an adequate seedbed.  Although there were no
significant differences between head strip fires and backfires, head
strip fires were cheaper and easier to control.  A summer strip fire
should only be conducted, however, if fuel accumulation is less than 10
tons per acre (22 metric tons/ha).  Optimum summer fire conditions were
a litter moisture content of 10 to 20 percent, a relative humidity of 20
to 60 percent, and a steady wind speed of 1 to 5 miles per hour (1.6-8
km/h).
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Implications

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fuel, litter

A single strip fire in the summer is the best method for removing
hardwoods and preparing an adequate seedbed.  Although there were no
significant differences between head strip fires and backfires, head
strip fires were cheaper and easier to control.  A summer strip fire
should only be conducted, however, if fuel accumulation is less than 10
tons per acre (22 metric tons/ha).  Optimum summer fire conditions were
a litter moisture content of 10 to 20 percent, a relative humidity of 20
to 60 percent, and a steady wind speed of 1 to 5 miles per hour (1.6-8
km/h).

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

  
   Phanerophyte
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: imperfect

Loblolly pine is predominantly found on Ultisols but can grow on a wide
variety of soils including Entisols, Spodosols, and Altisols.  It grows
best on moderately acidic soil with imperfect to poor surface drainage,
thick medium-textured surface layers, and fine-textured subsoils.

Loblolly pine thrives in areas with 40 to 50 inches (1,020-1,270 mm) of
annual precipitation and 6 to 10 frost-free months.  Low temperatures
limit its northern range and low rainfall limits its western range [59].
Loblolly pine grows on flat to mountainous terrain from 500 to 1,200
feet (150-365 m) in elevation [3].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the terms: hardwood, swamp

    46  Eastern redcedar
    70  Longleaf pine
    74  Cabbage palmetto
    75  Shortleaf pine
    79  Virginia pine
    80  Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
    81  Loblolly pine
    82  Loblolly pine - hardwood
    83  Longleaf pine - slash pine
    85  Slash pine - hardwood
    87  Sweetgum - yellow-poplar
    91  Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak
    98  Pond pine
   104  Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES12  Longleaf - slash pine
   FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine
   FRES14  Oak - pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES16  Oak - gum - cypress
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: forest

   K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest
   K112  Southern mixed forest
   K113  Southern floodplain forest
   K114  Pocosin
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: crown fire, high-severity fire, moderate-severity fire, tree

Loblolly pines less than 5 feet (1.5 m) tall are usually killed by light
fire [37,59].  Saplings up to 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter are usually
killed by moderate-severity fire, and trees up to 4 inches (10 cm) in
diameter are usually killed by high-severity fire.  Trees greater than 4
inches d.b.h. are rarely killed by moderate-severity fire [17].
Shade-grown saplings are susceptible to mortality from light fire
because of retarded bark and height growth [59].  In general, suppressed
small trees are more susceptible to fire damage and mortality than are
vigorous, large trees [1,39,45,54].  Summer fires kill more trees than
do winter fires [22].

Crown damage:  Crown damage generally results in more fatality than
basal damage does [17,22,54,61].  Following a low-severity winter fire
in a 4-year-old stand that averaged 7.3 feet (2.2 m) in height,
mortality was low for seedlings that had less than 80 percent crown
scorch [61].  Older trees are not very susceptible to mortality from
crown scorch.  Only a small percentage of severely crown-scorched trees
greater than 8 inches (20 cm) in d.b.h. were killed by a high-severity
hot spot in a prescribed summer fire in Virginia [1].

Mortality is greatly increased if needles burn.  If there is 25 percent
or more needle consumption in loblolly pine younger than 9 years old ,
75 percent mortality can be expected [22].  If the buds are killed, the
tree will not recover [59].  Crown scorch is more serious in a summer
fire because there are no dormant vegetative buds [41].

Loblolly pine needles were killed instantly when immersed in water at
147 degrees Fahrenheit (64 deg C) but survived 13 minutes at 126 degrees
Fahrenheit (52 deg C) [10].

Roots are normally insulated by mineral soil, but if they are exposed
and burned, the tree can die [59].  Kayll [32] reported that heat
tolerance of seedling roots varied, but exposure to 129 degrees
Fahrenheit (54 deg C) for 5 minutes, 122 degrees F (50 deg C) for 30
minutes, or 118 degrees F (48 deg C) for 2 hours was generally lethal.

If a crown fire occurs, seeds inside cones can be destroyed.  In one
study [59], only 16 percent of seeds were viable in top-killed trees
compared to 70 percent in uninjured trees.
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

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More info for the term: cover

Loblolly pine seeds are an important food source for birds and small
mammals.  More than 20 songbirds feed on loblolly pine seeds, and the
seeds make up more than half the diet of the red crossbill.  Deer and
rabbit browse seedlings [59].  Loblolly pine stands provide cover and
habitat for white-tailed deer, northern bobwhite, wild turkey, and grey
and fox squirrels.  Old-growth loblolly pine provides nesting habitat
for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker [3].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

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More info for the terms: forest, herbaceous, natural, shrubs

Published classifications listing loblolly pine as a dominant
species in community types are presented below.

Eastern deciduous forest, Vol. 1: Southeastern evergreen and
  oak-pine region [58]
Plant communities of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina and their
  successional relations [65]
The natural communities of South Carolina [67]

Common overstory associates of loblolly pine include southern red oak
(Quercus falcata), white oak (Q. alba), blackjack oak (Q. marilandica),
post oak (Q. stellata), water oak (Q. nigra), willow oak (Q. phellos),
laurel oak (Q. laurifolia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), persimmon
(Diospyros virginiana), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), spruce pine
(Pinus glabra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), red maple (Acer rubrum),
southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), American elm (Ulmus
americana), water hickory (Carya aquatica) and white and Carolina ash
(Fraxinus americana and F. caroliniana) [3].

Common understory shrubs and trees include flowering dogwood (Cornus
florida), American holly (Ilex opaca), inkberry (I. glabra), yaupon (I.
vomitoria), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), southern bayberry (Myrica
cerifera), pepperbush (Clethra spp.), and sumac (Rhus spp.) [3].

Common herbaceous species include bluestem (Andropogon spp.), panicum
(Panicum spp.), sedges (Carex spp. and Cyperus spp.), and fennel
(Eupatorium spp.) [3].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

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More info for the term: tree

Tree
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Management considerations

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More info for the terms: basal area, competition, cone, hardwood, herbaceous, litter, natural, scarification, seed, seed tree, tree, vine

Loblolly pine is often grown in even-aged plantations.  Natural
regeneration of even-aged stands can be accomplished using the seed
tree, shelterwood, or clearcut systems.  Successful natural regeneration
depends on an adequate seed supply, a receptive seedbed, ample moisture,
and reduced competition.  The seed tree system works well in the Coastal
Plain where loblolly seed crops are heavy and consistent [38].  Seed
tree silviculture requires 6 to 12 loblolly pine seed trees per acre
with a basal area of 6 square feet per acre (1.4 sq m/ha) [2].  Seed
trees should be 30 to 50 years old [59].  The shelterwood silviculture
system works well in the Piedmont where seed production is more erratic.
This system requires 20 to 40 seed trees per acre with a basal area of
25 to 40 square feet per acre (5.7-9.2 sq m/ha) [19].  Seed trees need
only be 30 years old in the shelterwood system [7].  Seed trees in both
systems should be harvested 3 to 5 years after successful regeneration
[19].  Cone production can be stimulated by releasing seed trees three
growing seasons before the seed is needed [3,38].

Seedbed preparation:  Loblolly germinates best on exposed mineral soil.
Prescribed burning or mechanical scarification is used [3].  Seedling
growth and survival rates increase with increased site preparation [20,30]. 

Hardwood control:  Control of competing hardwood and herbaceous species
is generally considered necessary for loblolly pine regeneration [3,19].
Herbicides, fire, and mechanical chopping are used to remove hardwoods
before loblolly pine regeneration.  Once established, seedlings tolerate
some shade and will overtop competitors within 5 years if growth begins
at the same time [12,60].  Intensive understory control throughout the
life of the stand increases the growth and yield of loblolly pine.
Herbaceous control is more important than hardwood control for
increasing loblolly pine growth [12].

Insects:  Loblolly pine is severely attacked by the southern pine beetle
(Dendroctonus frontalis).  Infestations originate in stands stressed by
fire, drought, or logging.  Other insects that damage loblolly pine
include pine engraver beetles (Ips spp.), pine tip moths (Rhyacionia
spp.), seedling debarking weevils (Hylobius spp. and Pachylobius spp.),
cone and seed feeders (Dioryctria spp. and Leptoglossus spp.), and
sawflies (Neodiprion spp.) [3,7,59].

Disease:  Fusiform rust (Cronartium quercuum) is a stem disease that
infects seedlings and saplings.  If the stem is girdled, the tree dies
[3,7].  Removing trees with severe stem galls minimizes timber losses
and improves stand quality [5].  The incidence of fusiform rust
increases with an increase in seedbed preparation [30].  Planted stands
have less fusiform rust incidence and associated mortality than do
naturally regenerated stands [46].

Root rot (Heterobasidion annosum) infects thinned stands.  The fungus
colonizes on freshly cut stumps and then spreads by root to root contact
[51].  Thick litter is associated with sporophore development [25].  The
disease can be prevented by treating cut stumps with borax or with the
benign fungus, Peniphora gigantea [7].

Other fungal diseases include black root rot (Fusarium spp. and
Macrophomina spp.), which affects seedlings, and heart rot (Phellinus
pini and Phaeolus schweinitzii), which causes bole and butt rot in old
trees [3].

Weather:  Loblolly pine is relatively windfirm where soils are deep, but
windthrow is common on shallow soils.  Freezing temperatures cause
damage and seedling mortality, especially where southern seed sources
are used to establish northern stands [3,59].

Wildlife:  The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker nests in living
loblolly pine with decayed heartwood.  Trees older than 75 years are
most likely to develop the heart rot necessary for cavity excavation
[29].  Death of old-growth loblolly pine is primarily from the southern
pine beetle.  To minimize cavity tree mortality, site disturbances such
as fire and logging should be limited where southern pine beetle
populations are high [16].

Pollution:  Acid rain is suspected of causing an abnormal decrease in
growth of loblolly pine in the past 25 years in New Jersey [31].
However, loblolly pine does not appear affected by aluminum
concentrations of 1.5 millimoles per liter or less [48].

Other considerations:  Kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata) will grow on,
engulf, and eventually smother even large loblolly pine [47].  Survival
and growth rates of loblolly pine seedlings decrease if grown with
broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus).  Broomsedge may have an allelopathic
effect on loblolly pine [44].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
     AL  AR  DE  FL  GA  HI  LA  MD  MS  NJ
     NC  OK  SC  TN  TX  VA
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

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Loblolly pine is used for shade and as a wind and noise barrier [3].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: seed

Flowering is initiated in the summer, and staminate and pistillate buds
develop in the fall.  Buds remain dormant until the following spring
when fertilization takes place.  The time of pollen release is variable
and depends on springtime temperatures.  Cones ripen in September and
October of the second season.  Seed dispersal begins in October and
peaks in November.  Eighty-five percent of the seeds fall by
mid-December [3,34,38,59].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The growth of young loblolly pine can be reduced by fire damage.
Lightly scorched 4-year-old seedlings showed a slight loss in height
growth but no loss in diameter growth [61].  In another study [39],
19-year-old loblolly pine showed no growth loss when lightly scorched,
and only completely scorched trees continued to have growth loss 3 years
after the fire [39].

Loblolly pine seeds will germinate on soil exposed by fire [3]. 

If crown scorch occurs in the winter, foliage is usually replaced by
surviving dormant vegetative buds [41].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: crown residual colonizer, root crown, tree

   Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
   Crown residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
   Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: cone, epigeal, forest, monoecious, seed, tree

Seed production and dissemination:  Loblolly pine is monoecious.  It
produces some cones by age 12 to 18, and begins producing cone crops
with high seed viability by age 25 [59].  Forty-year-old trees produce 3
to 5 times as many seeds as 25-year-old trees.  Loblolly pine is a
prolific and consistent seed producer in the Coastal Plain and produces
large amounts of seed every 3 to 6 years in the Piedmont.  Seed
viability ranges from 15 to 100 percent [3] and averages 60 percent
[59].  Cones contain an average of 45 seeds [19] but may contain
anywhere from 20 to 200 seeds [3].  In a good year, a mature tree
produces an average of 9,000 to 15,000 seeds [59].  Early summer drought
or freezing weather at flowering time results in low cone production
[38].  The winged seeds are dispersed 200 to 300 feet (61-91 m) by wind
[3].

Germination and seedling development:  Seeds lay dormant on the forest
floor for 4 to 8 months.  Germination is epigeal and is enhanced by bare
mineral soil.  Germination takes place in March or early April [3].  No
viable ungerminated seeds carry over to the next growing season [4].
Adequate soil moisture is critical to the survival of newly germinated
seedlings [3,38].  Young open-grown loblolly pine grow 2 to 3 feet
(0.6-0.9 m) in height annually [13].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Season/Severity Classification

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Summer strip head fire/low- to moderate-severity
Summer backfire/low-severity
Winter strip head fire/low- to moderate-severity
Winter backfire/low-severity

Site Description

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More info for the terms: hardwood, litter

The terrain was gently rolling with 10 to 20 percent slope.  Litter
accumulation was 4 to 8 tons per acre (9-18 metric tons/ha) of which
approximately 10 to 45 percent was hardwood litter.  The humus type was
shallow duff-mull.

Successional Status

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More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, fire frequency, forest, frequency, hardwood

Loblolly pine is moderately tolerant of shade when young but becomes
intolerant with age.  It invades oldfields, clearcuts, and other
disturbed sites.  Loblolly pine's rapid growth allows it to dominate a
site early [3].  In the absence of fire, loblolly pine is replaced by
climax hardwood forest.  Where fire burns on average every 10 years,
loblolly pine is considered a fire subclimax [59].  It will supplant
longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) where fire frequency is reduced.
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The currently accepted scientific name of loblolly pine is Pinus taeda
L. [40]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms.
Loblolly pine forms hybrids with shortleaf pine (P. echinata), longleaf
pine (P. palustris), pitch pine (P. rigida), slash pine (P. elliottii),
and pond pine (P. serotina) [3,40].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

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More info for the terms: competition, cover, herbaceous, litter, reclamation, vines

Because of its fast growth and good litter production, loblolly pine is
used for soil stabilization [3].  Loblolly can be planted in small
gullies and washes and in deeper washes if they are first stabilized
with vines [59].

Loblolly is adapted to a wide range of mine spoil sites.  When used for
surface mine reclamation, it should not be planted above 2,500 feet (762
m) or in soil with a pH lower than 4.0.  It does well when planted with
European alder (Alnus glutinosa) and with legumes.  A loblolly pine X
pitch pine hybrid is used for mine reclamation in Kentucky and West
Virginia and grows faster than either parent [55].  Because surface mine
reclamation regulations require herbaceous cover, ground pads can be
used to reduce nearby competition in order to increase seedling growth
[18].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Wood Products Value

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Loblolly pine is the leading commercial timber species in the
southeastern United States [3,7].  Three-quarters of a million acres
(300,000 ha) are harvested each year for lumber and pulpwood [38].  Most
harvested pines are under 50 years old [7].  After 36 years, an
even-aged planted stand can yield 5,000 to 6,000 total cubic feet per
acre (350-415 cu m/ha) of merchantable timber [2].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Derivation of specific name

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
taeda: an ancient name for resinous pine trees
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Pinus taeda L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=102990
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Worldwide distribution

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SE USA from Texas to Delaware
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Pinus taeda L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=102990
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Associated Forest Cover

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Loblolly pine is found in pure stands and in mixtures with other pines or hardwoods, and in association with a great variety of lesser vegetation. When loblolly pine predominates, it forms the forest cover type Loblolly Pine (Society of American Foresters Type 81) (31). Within their natural ranges, longleaf, shortleaf, and Virginia pine (Pinus palustris, P. echinata, and P. virginiana), southern red, white, post, and blackjack oak (Quercus falcata, Q. alba, Q. stellata, and Q. marilandica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) are frequent associates on well-drained sites. Pond pine (Pinus serotina), spruce pine (P. glabra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), red maple (Acer rubrum), and water oak (Quercus nigra), willow oak (Q. phellos), and cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var. pagodifolia) are common associates on moderately to poorly drained sites. In the southern part of its range, loblolly frequently is found with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia).

In east Texas, southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and the lower Piedmont, loblolly and shortleaf pine are often found in mixed stands. In Loblolly Pine-Shortleaf Pine (Type 80), loblolly predominates except on drier sites and at higher elevations. When shortleaf pine predominates, the mixture forms Shortleaf Pine (Type 75).

In fertile, well-drained coves and along stream bottoms, especially in the eastern part of the range, yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), and white and Carolina ash (Fraxinus americana and F. caroliniana) are often found in the Loblolly Pine-Shortleaf Pine cover type.

Loblolly pine also grows in mixture with hardwoods throughout its range in Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (Type 82). On moist to wet sites this type often contains such broadleaf evergreens as sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana), southern magnolia (M. grandiflora), and redbay (Persea borbonia), along with swamp tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), red maple, sweetgum, water oak, cherrybark oak, swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii), white ash, American elm (Ulmus americana), and water hickory (Carya aquatica). Occasionally, slash, pond, and spruce pine are present.

In the Piedmont and in the Atlantic Plain of northern Virginia and Maryland, loblolly pine grows with Virginia Pine (Type 79). In northern Mississippi, Alabama, and in Tennessee it is a minor associate in the eastern redcedar-hardwood variant of Eastern Redcedar (Type 46). On moist lower Atlantic Plain sites loblolly pine is found in Longleaf Pine (Type 70), Longleaf Pine-Slash Pine (Type 83), and Slash Pine-Hardwood (Type 85).

In the flood plains and on terraces of major rivers (except the Mississippi River) loblolly pine is a minor associate in Swamp Chestnut Oak-Cherrybark Oak (Type 91). On moist, lower slopes in the Atlantic Plain it is an important component in the Sweetgum-Yellow Poplar (Type 87). In bays, ponds, swamps, and marshes of the Atlantic Plain it is a common associate in Pond Pine (Type 98), the cabbage palmetto-slash pine variant of Cabbage Palmetto (Type 74), and Sweetbay-Swamp Tupelo-Red Bay (Type 104).

There is a great variety of lesser vegetation found in association with loblolly pine. Some common understory trees and shrubs include flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), American holly (Ilex opaca), inkberry (I. glabra), yaupon (I. vomitoria), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), southern bayberry (Myrica cerifera), pepperbush (Clethra spp.), sumac (Rhus spp.), and a number of ericaceous shrubs. Some common herbaceous species include bluestems (Andropogon spp.), panicums (Panicum spp.), sedges (Carex spp. and Cyperus spp.), and fennels (Eupatorium spp.).

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Climate

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The climate over most of the loblolly pine range is humid, warm-temperate with long, hot summers and mild winters. Average annual rainfall varies from 1020 to 1520 mm (40 to 60 in). The frost-free period varies from 5 months in the northern part of the range to 10 months along the southern coastal States. Mean annual temperatures range from 13° to 24° C (55° to 75° F); average July temperature is 27° C (80° F) and frequently exceeds 38° C (100° F). January temperature averages 4° to 16° C (40° to 60° F) and occasionally drops to -23° C (-10° F) in the northern and western parts of the range (69).

During both winter and summer, weather within the range of loblolly pine differs from that immediately outside the range. There are a greater number of days with rain, a greater frequency of effective amounts of rain, that is, more than 13 mm (0.5 in), and higher average winter temperatures. In spring and autumn, the weather within and outside the range is more nearly the same (37).

The main factor limiting northern extension of the species is probably low winter temperature with associated damage from ice, snow, and sleet and cold damage during flowering. Lack of adequate growing-season precipitation probably limits western extension of loblolly pine in Oklahoma and Texas (37).

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Damaging Agents

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Agents that cause periodic damage to individual trees or stands of loblolly pine include wind, lightning, temperature extremes, ice, drought, flooding, insects, and diseases. Voluminous literature about the effects of these agents in loblolly pine stands on a range of sites, soils, and stand conditions is available; a brief summary follows.

Large dominant trees usually are more vulnerable to high winds than smaller trees, and trees with large cankers caused by rust disease break more readily than sound trees. In general, damage resulting from severe winds associated with hurricanes or thunderstorms is caused primarily by windthrow or blowdown. Windthrow is most common on shallow soils with coarse-textured profiles. Wind damage is also more likely to occur in recently thinned stands (37,105).

Direct losses to lightning are small, averaging only about 5 trees per 100 hectares (2/100 acres) per year. Large, dominant, open-grown trees are generally the most vulnerable to lightning strikes. Probably more important than the direct damage caused by lightning is the possibility that a lightning-struck tree will become a center for insect infestation (37).

Damage or seedling mortality caused by low or freezing temperatures occurs primarily in the northern extremities of the loblolly pine range. Older, vigorous trees can usually withstand occasional low temperatures (37,79). Greater damage frequently occurs from ice or glaze storms. This damage is normally associated with branch and stem breakage, severe bending and, in some cases, uprooting. Ice damage is usually more severe in recently thinned (particularly row thinned) plantations and in heavily stocked stands made up of slender, small-crowned trees (37,91). Extremely high summer temperatures and drought often cause mortality of seedlings and, in some cases, of larger trees. Heat and drought more often cause stress and a resultant loss of vigor and growth in larger trees, which can lead to more serious problems with insect infestations.

Loblolly pine seedlings or saplings cannot withstand prolonged flooding. Complete inundation for more than 2 weeks during the growing season often results in significant mortality. Larger trees are classed as moderately tolerant of flooding; typically they can survive one season but usually succumb during the second growing season if continuously in 0.3 m (1 ft) or more of water (37,113).

A comprehensive review of insects associated with loblolly pine is provided by Baker (7). Loblolly pine serves as host to a multitude of insect pests; however, insect outbreaks vary greatly in frequency, area, and duration. The majority of outbreaks are small and short-lived and usually consist of only one or a few spots in a stand, but some may expand until they encompass hundreds of hectares and last for several years before subsiding. With only a few exceptions, the majority of the insects that attack loblolly pine are insignificant in terms of damage or mortality.

The most serious insect pests to loblolly pine are bark beetles, particularly the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis), whose attack may result in extensive mortality, and pine engraver beetles (Ips spp.), that can cause death of isolated or small groups of trees; pine tip moths (Rhyacionia spp.), that often infest young trees; seedling debarking weevils (Hylobius spp.and Pachylobius spp.), that sometimes result in girdling and death of young seedlings up to 13 mm (0.5 in) in d.b.h.; and cone and seed feeders (Dioryctria spp.and Leptoglossus spp.), that can seriously reduce seed crops. Loblolly pine is generally the preferred host of the southern pine beetle, which is the most destructive insect for this species (102). Most infestations originate in stands that are under stress because of poor site, adverse weather, overstocking, or overmaturity. Once a buildup of southern pine beetle occurs, adjacent well-managed stands may also be attacked. Preventive measures include avoidance of planting offsite and maintenance of vigorous stands through silvicultural practices such as controlling density through thinning and harvesting trees at or before maturity (6,102).

A general account of diseases associated with loblolly pine is provided by Hepting (54). The most common disease problems in loblolly pine are related to seedling susceptibility to black root rot (Fusarium spp., Macrophomina spp., and possibly others) and fusiform rust (Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme); sapling susceptibility to fusiform rust; root rot by Heterobasidion annosum in thinned stands; and heart rot in old stands with Phellinus pini in the bole and Phaeolus schweinitzii primarily in the butt.

Nursery seedlings are subject to root rot in soils with pH above 6.0 under moist conditions; however, root rot becomes severe only if soil temperatures remain above 32° C (90° F) for long periods. Fusiform rust is also a major nursery disease in many parts of the South, requiring rigid spray programs to keep infections low.

The most serious stem disease is fusiform rust, which kills and disfigures young trees from Virginia to Texas. Saplings and older trees, especially if planted, are subject to attacks by Heterobasidion annosum in stands where some cutting has taken place. It is considered a disease problem in plantation management second only to fusiform rust. Losses in natural stands or in the absence of some cutting are generally negligible.

Phaeolus schweinitzii causes a root and butt rot, usually after basal or root injuries, and in the Deep South it has caused more loss in some areas than Heterobasidion annosum. Red heart (Phellinus pini), entering almost entirely through dead branch stubs, is rarely a factor under the age of 60 years. However, when large branches that have heartwood begin to die, red heart can set in and destroy much of a tree.

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Flowering and Fruiting

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Loblolly pine is monoecious; male flowers form in clusters at the tip of the preceding year's growth and female flowers form on the new year's growth. The pollen-bearing staminate flowers are catkin-like in appearance; they range from 2.5 to 3.8 cm (1.0 to 1.5 in) in length and vary from light green to red and yellow depending on stage of development. The pistillate flowers are generally ovoid and range from 1.0 to 1.5 cm (0.4 to 0.6 in) in length. They vary from light green through shades of pink to red depending on stage of development.

Flowering of loblolly pine is initiated in July and August in a quiescent bud that is set from middle June to early July. The male strobili form in this bud in late July and the female in August, but they are not differentiated into recognizable structures until late September or October. In October the staminate buds develop at the base of a vegetative bud and the pistillate buds develop at the apex of a vegetative bud a few weeks later; both remain dormant until early February (37,41). The date of peak pollen shed depends on the accumulation of 353° C (636° F) day-heat units above 13° C (55° F) after February 1 (16). Flowering is also related to latitude, beginning earlier at lower latitudes than at higher ones, and it can occur between February 15 and April 10. Staminate flowers on a given tree tend to mature before the pistillate flowers, which helps to reduce self-pollination. Fertilization of the pistillate strobili takes place in the spring of the following year (37).

Loblolly pine does not normally flower at an early age, although flowering has been induced on young grafts with scion age of only 3 years. The phenomenon of inducing such early flowering in seedlings is dependent on reducing vegetative shoot growth so that quiescent buds are formed in the latter part of the growing season to allow for the initiation and differentiation of reproductive structures. The formation of quiescent buds in seedlings and saplings does not usually occur during that period because four to five growth flushes are common for trees of this age. As a loblolly pine tree ages, the number of growth flushes decreases, which accounts in part for increased flowering of trees at older ages. Flowering is also genetically controlled and is influenced by moisture (May-July rainfall) and nutrient stresses.

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Growth and Yield

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Growth of loblolly pine stands is inherently good when compared to most hardwood competitors and on many sites doubles or triples the production of common associates (108). Growth is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of soils (texture, compaction, aeration, moisture, pH, nutrients), light, temperature, photoperiod, allelopathy, precipitation and its seasonal pattern, and intra- and inter-species competition for space and essential elements. Because many of these factors interact, it is difficult to specify the most limiting one. Consequently, these biotic and environmental effects are commonly expressed as the average height of dominant trees at age 50 years, that is, site index.

Yield estimates for natural, even-aged loblolly pine in fully stocked stands were first made more than 50 years ago (3,106). Additional estimates have been made in more recent years for stands of various stocking levels (18,81,90,99).

Normal yields of natural, even-aged loblolly pine stands on average sites, such as those with a site index of 27 m (90 ft), have ranged from 133.0 m³/ha (1,900 ft³/acre) in trees 9 cm (3.6 in) and larger in d.b.h. including 29.4 m³/ha (2,100 fbm/acre) in trees 24 cm (9.6 in) and larger d.b.h. at age 20 to 427.7 m³/ha (6,110 ft³ or 40,000 fbm/acre) at age 60 (all board-foot volumes reported in International quarter-inch rule). Mean annual cubic volume growth generally culminates at about age 40 on these sites with approximately 8.0 m³/ha (115 ft³/acre). As a result of larger sawtimber merchantability limits, mean annual board-foot growth culminates at about age 50 at a rate of 9.5 m³/ha (680 fbm/acre).

Growth of loblolly pine may be affected adversely by drought, excess moisture (flooding), and nutrient deficiencies. Growth of this species is highly correlated with departure from the normal rainfall of April through October. Extreme negative and positive departures (-117 vs. 229 mm or -4.6 vs. 9.0 in) in seasonal rainfall over 21 years resulted in differences of nearly 2.1 m³ (74 ft³) of annual growth (12,39,65). Drainage (including bedding) and fertilization have been shown to increase dominant height and basal-area growth, resulting in dramatic increases in volume growth (45,63,76,101).

Growth of planted loblolly pine is affected by the same factors affecting natural stands. Sites are usually prepared before planting on cutover lands, and some are fertilized to correct nutrient deficiencies. Such practices are applied to control competition and to supply nutrients at optimum levels to establish vigorous, uniform stands at spacings that will fully utilize site potentials.

Yields of planted loblolly pine vary with plantation age, site quality, number of trees planted, and interactions of these variables. Yields generally increase with increasing age and site quality. Yields also increase with higher planting density or closer spacing; however, on some sites, moderately wide spacing of 2.4 by 2.4 m (8 by 8 ft) or 3.0 by 3.0 m (10 by 10 ft) outproduce both wider and closer spacing. Mean annual increment culminates at younger ages on better sites than on poorer ones. Better sites can carry more stocking than poor sites; consequently, initial spacing can be closer (9,77,93).

Closer spacing tends to produce higher total cubic volumes at younger ages than does wider spacing; however, average tree sizes are larger on wider spacings than on closer ones. If sawtimber is a primary management objective, then wider spacing or lower density would be advantageous. Although thinning seldom increases cubic volume yield of loblolly pine, light thinnings that salvage suppressed and moribund trees have increased net yields by as much as 20 percent in 50 years. Thinnings usually result in increased diameter growth of residual trees and allow the growth to be put on the better trees in the stand. Another benefit is that thinnings provide intermediate returns on investment (2,17).

Average total solid-wood yields of unthinned loblolly pine planted at 1,730 seedlings per hectare (700/acre) on non-old-field sites at various locations within its range were predicted to increase from approximately 155 m³/ha (2,200 ft³/acre) at age 15 to 300 m³/ha (4,200 ft³/acre) at age 30. Mean annual increment at age 30 was about 10 m³/ha (145 ft³/acre) (1,4,27,33,67). Estimates are also available for a variety of site and stand conditions and geographic areas (8,21,22,23,25,44,68,71).

Growth and yield in natural uneven-aged loblolly pine stands is dependent on stand structure, stocking, and site quality. To optimize average annual growth on average sites with a site index of 27 m (90 ft), stand structure should be manipulated so that approximately 70 percent of the merchantable cubic volume is in the saw-log portion of the stand, that is, trees 25 cm (10 in) in d.b.h. and larger. On average sites, stands with approximately 17 m²/ha (75 ft²/acre) of basal area, or 140 m³/ha (2,000 ft³/acre) total merchantable volume, or 10,000 fbm saw-log volume at the end of the cutting cycle would be considered well stocked (5,84,86).

On good sites in southern Arkansas, with a site index of 27 m (90 ft) managed uneven-aged loblolly pine stands that are well stocked have averaged 0.7 m²/ha (3 ft²/acre) of basal-area growth, 5.6 m³/ha (80 ft³/acre) of merchantable volume growth, or 432 fbm/acre of saw-log volume growth per year for a 29-year period. On somewhat poorer sites in the Georgia Piedmont with a site index of 23 m (75 ft), annual growth has averaged 5.3 m³/ha (76 ft³/acre) or 319 fbm/acre over a 21-year period (5,17,82,85,86).

In sapling stands, differences in growth rate of individual loblolly pines are evident at early ages when competition between trees begins. The growth differentiation process begins at earlier ages on better sites or at higher levels of stocking; it begins later on poor sites or at low levels of stocking (51). The result is separation of trees into crown classes. Growth in height is a critical factor in the occupation of available space. Loblolly pine is a species in which individual trees tend to express dominance at an early age, and the most vigorous individuals that are best adapted to the microsite environment become dominants as the stand ages.

Faster growing trees develop larger live-crown ratios than do slower growing trees. Diameter growth of individual trees generally increases as crown surface area and crown ratio increase, with optimal diameter growth occurring when trees have at least a 40 percent live-crown ratio. Diameter increment does not occur uniformly on portions of the bole. Annual diameter growth is greatest within the crown and decreases with increased distance below the crown. This phenomenon causes the bole of loblolly pine trees to become cylindrical with increasing age. Height growth is not as sensitive as diameter growth to differences in crown size. Height growth of codominants is significantly less, however, in dense stands of trees with small crowns than in low-density stands of trees with larger crowns (37,38,51).

Loblolly pine is a medium-lived tree. Maximum recorded age of one tree in a small stand of 20 trees in North Carolina was 245 years, with the group averaging 240 years. The largest tree in this stand was 135 cm (53 in) in d.b.h. and 45.7 m (150 ft) tall. Currently, the champion for the species in the "National Register of Big Trees" is located near Urania, LA, and is 143 cm (56.3 in) in d.b.h. and 49.7 m (163 ft) tall (52).

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Reaction to Competition

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Loblolly pine is moderately tolerant when young but becomes intolerant of shade with age. Its shade tolerance is similar to that of shortleaf and Virginia pines, less than that of most hardwoods, and more than that of slash and longleaf pines (31,37,108). Loblolly pine is most accurately classed as intolerant of shade.

Succession in loblolly pine stands that originate in old fields and cutover lands exhibit a rather predictable pattern. The more tolerant hardwoods (including various species of oaks and hickories, sweetgum, blackgum, beech, magnolia, holly, and dogwood) invade the understory of loblolly pine stands and, with time, gradually increase in numbers and in basal area. The hardwoods finally share dominance with each other and with loblolly pine (37,83,100).

The climax forest for the loblolly pine type has been described as oak-hickory, beech-maple, magnolia-beech, and oak-hickory-pine in various parts of its range (28,37). Others view the climax forest as several possible combinations of hardwood species and loblolly pine. There is evidence that within the range of loblolly pine several different tree species could potentially occupy a given area for an indefinite period of time and that disturbance is a naturally occurring phenomenon. If this is so, then the climax for this southern forest might best be termed the southern mixed hardwood-pine forest (83).

Competition affects the growth of loblolly pine in varying degrees depending on the site, the amount and size of competing vegetation, and age of the loblolly pine stand. Across the southern region, average loss of volume production resulting from hardwood competition has been estimated at 25 percent in natural stands and 14 percent in plantations (35). In a North Carolina study, residual hardwoods after logging reduced cubic-volume growth of a new stand of loblolly pine by 50 percent at 20 years, and where additional small hardwoods of sprout and seedling origin were present, growth was reduced by another 20 percent by age 20 (10,64). Similar growth responses in young seedling and sapling stands have been observed in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas (24,26,39). Although several short-term studies (5 years or less) of the effects of understory hardwoods on growth of older loblolly pine did not show measurable effects (58), a long-term study (11 to 14 years) showed growth increases of 20 to 43 percent in cubic volume and 21 to 54 percent in board-foot volume after removal of understory vegetation (39). Control of both residual overstory and understory hardwoods is a financially attractive silvicultural treatment for loblolly pine management (10).

Silvicultural practices such as prescribed burns, the use of herbicides, and mechanical treatments arrest natural succession in loblolly pine stands by retarding the growth and development of hardwood understories. Prescribed fire is effective for manipulating understory vegetation, reducing excessive fuel (hazard reduction), disposing of logging slash, preparing planting sites and seedbeds, and improving wildlife habitat. Responses of the understory to prescribed fire varies with frequency and season of burning. Periodic winter burns keep hardwood understories in check, while a series of annual summer burns usually reduces vigor and increases mortality of hardwood rootstocks (62). In the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a series of prescribed bums, such as a winter bum followed by three annual summer bums before a harvest cut, has been more effective than disking for control of competing hardwood vegetation and improvement of pine seedling growth after establishment of natural regeneration (103,104).

Loblolly pine expresses dominance early, and various crown classes develop rapidly under competition on good sites; but in dense stands on poor sites, expression of dominance and crown differentiation are slower (37).

Dense natural stands of loblolly pine usually respond well to precommercial thinning. To ensure, the best volume gains, stocking should be reduced to 1,235 to 1,730 stems per hectare (500 to 700/acre) by age 5. When managing for sawtimber, thinnings increase diameter growth of residual trees and allow growth to be put on the better trees in the stand, thus maximizing saw-log volume growth and profitability (56,78).

Loblolly pines that have developed in a suppressed condition respond in varying degrees to release. Increases in diameter growth after release are related to live-crown ratio and crown growing space, but trees of large diameter generally respond less than trees of small diameter. Trees with well-developed crowns usually respond best to release. Trees long suppressed may also grow much faster in both height and diameter after release but may never attain the growth rate of trees that were never suppressed (37,75).

Loblolly pine can be regenerated and managed with any of the four recognized reproduction cutting methods and silvicultural systems. Even-aged management is most commonly used on large acreages; however, uneven-aged management with selection cutting has proved to be a successful alternative.

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Rooting Habit

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The rooting habit of loblolly pine is strongly influenced by tree age, soil, and the soil environment. A young tree develops a short taproot but in most cases it ceases growth in favor of an extensive lateral-root system. A taproot 1.5 to 2.0 m (5.0 to 6.5 ft) long is often produced on deep, sandy or loamy soils. On heavy clay soils, the taproot tends to be stout and short. Taproots of loblolly pines are much smaller and shorter than those of shortleaf and longleaf pines. On excessively wet sites or when a water table or an impenetrable hardpan confines the roots to surface layers of soil, lateral roots are prominent in a superficial system (3,50,108).

In a 6-year-old loblolly pine plantation in southeast Louisiana, 83 percent of total root weight was in the upper 46 cm (18 in) of soil. In a 31-year-old natural stand in North Carolina, the majority of the feeder roots less than 2.5 mm (0.1 in) in diameter were concentrated in the 15-cm (6-in) deep A horizon; practically no lateral roots were found below the 15- to 53-cm (6- to 21-in) depth of the B horizon (14,59).

Roots of loblolly generally spread laterally farther than their crowns. As a result, root grafting is a common occurrence both in natural stands and closely spaced plantations. Roots grow at all times of the year, but most root growth occurs in April and May, and in late summer and early fall (37,80,89,108).

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Seed Production and Dissemination

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Seed production of loblolly pine varies according to physiographic region, climatic factors, and tree or stand condition. In the southern coastal portions of the Atlantic Plain, loblolly is generally a prolific and consistent seed producer, but in some of the inland portions of the Atlantic Plain, the Piedmont, and in the western extremities of its range, seed production is often lower and more erratic. Year-to-year variations in seed crops can range from failure to bumper crops. For example, in 27 years of seedfall records in the Atlantic Plain of South Carolina, there was one seed-crop failure but there were three seed crops of more than 2.5 million sound seeds per hectare (1 million/acre) with the other crops falling between these extremes. At most locations where seed-crop records have been kept, however, such wide annual variations have not been observed.

Despite fluctuations in seed production, loblolly usually produces some seeds every year and good seed crops normally occur at intervals of 3 to 6 years. More than 198,000 sound seeds per hectare (80,000/acre) is considered a good seed crop; 74,000 to 198,000/ha (30,000 to 80,000/acre) is an average crop, and less than 74,000/ha (30,000/acre) is considered marginal, depending on seedbed characteristics and weather conditions.

Throughout the range of loblolly pine, usually cones mature and seeds ripen by the second October after flowering or about 26 months after the strobili are initiated. The mature cones are light reddish brown and range from 7.5 to 15.0 cm (3 to 6 in) in length. They are narrowly conical to ovoid-cylindrical. Each cone scale is tipped with a stout triangular spine. Mature cones have a specific gravity of 0.89 or less (they float in SAE 20 oil). Individual cones may contain from less than 20 to more than 200 seeds, and the percentage of sound seeds may vary from about 15 percent to nearly 100 percent. Loblolly seeds vary in size from 27,100/kg (12,300/lb) to 58,200/kg (26,400/lb) and average 40,100/kg (18,200/lb) (37,88).

Seed production of individual trees increases with tree age, size, and freedom from crown competition. By age 25, enough seeds may be produced in widely spaced trees to regenerate a stand; however, trees at 40 years generally produce three to five times more. Rotations shorter than 30 years usually do not lend themselves to natural regeneration.

In well-stocked and overstocked stands, cone production of loblolly pine can be stimulated threefold to tenfold by releasing the seed trees from competitors at least three growing seasons before the seed is needed. If seed-tree release is delayed later than May 1, seed-crop stimulation will be delayed 1 year. In overstocked stands, if seed trees are not released before a harvest cutting, then seed-crop stimulation will be delayed 2 or 3 years, depending on the season of the harvest cut (37,61,95).

Seedfall usually begins in October, and the bulk of the seeds are released in November and early December. Seedfall is hastened by dry, warm, windy weather and retarded by cool, wet weather. Seed dispersal in or adjacent to a stand varies with height and stocking level of the seed-source trees, magnitude of the seed crop, terrain, and weather conditions at the time of seedfall. The effective seeding distance ranges from 61 to 91 m (200 to 300 ft) in a downwind direction from the seed source and 23 to 30 m (75 to 100 ft) in other directions. Viability of seeds varies with seed-crop size and the month that the seed is dispersed. Seed viability is often lower in years of poor seed crops and in seeds dispersed late in the season (37).

Loblolly pine seeds generally go through a stage of dormancy after seedfall, which lasts longer than that of any other southern pine. Seed dormancy is related to the impermeable properties of the seedcoat that constrain water imbibition and oxygen uptake; chemical germination inhibitors do not play a significant role (11,73). Dormancy is broken naturally as the seeds overwinter on the forest floor. Germination is epigeal (88). Natural seed germination usually begins in March when daytime temperatures range between 18° and 27° C (65° and 80° F). Few seeds remain viable (not more than 0.1 percent) on the forest floor for germination in the second year after seedfall (70). Secondary seed dormancy can be induced during seed handling procedures. Cold, moist stratification of the seed for 30 to 90 days at temperatures 3° to 5° C (37° to 41° F) are generally recommended to artificially break dormancy for direct seeding or for nursery sowing (74).

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Seedling Development

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Moisture is a critical factor in seed germination and seedling establishment; the amount of rainfall in the spring is related directly to seedling catches. Scarifying the seedbed exposes mineral soil and increases contact of the seeds with moist soil surfaces. Failure of the root radicle to penetrate compacted or puddled soil surfaces reduces seedling establishment, especially on major skid trails and log decks. Soil compaction and puddling also reduce root growth, seedling survival, and shoot growth (36,37,40,61).

Seedbed preparation by scarification or burning greatly increases seed germination and seedling survival, which reduces the number of seeds required to produce one seedling. For example, undisturbed seedbeds with a litter depth of 8 to 10 cm. (3 to 4 in) require 5 to 6 times more seeds to produce the number of seedlings produced in disturbed seedbeds.

Seed germination decreases with age of seedbed and increases with clay content of the soil. Two-year-old seedbeds require 3 to 4 times more seed for successful establishment than do 1-year-old seedbeds, and 3-year-old seedbeds require 9 to 14 times more seed than is needed in the first year. Thus, favorable seedbeds usually exist for only 1 year after disturbance, after which they rapidly deteriorate. Heavier textured soils provide better seedbeds which results in higher seedling survival than do lighter textured soils (37,104).

Drought is a major cause of mortality for planted loblolly pine seedlings, especially in areas with low rainfall during the growing season. Improper care, handling, and planting of nursery stock and inadequate site preparation for control of competing vegetation also contribute to poor survival by indirectly increasing moisture stress (34,57).

Height growth of loblolly pine seedlings occurs annually in a series of two to five growth flushes and is dependent on variables such as temperature, day length, soil moisture, nutrients, competition, and genetics. Temperature has a dominant influence on the initiation of height growth in the spring. High day temperatures increase height growth, but high night temperatures decrease it. When day and night temperatures differ by 12° to 13° C (54° to 55° F), the best height growth occurs (15,43).

Soil moisture influences growth of loblolly pine by its effect on internal water relations and vital physiological processes. Growth is reduced with increasing water deficits. For example, at a soil moisture tension of 1520 mm of mercury (2 atm), height growth of loblolly pine seedlings is greatly reduced and at 2660 mm of mercury (3.5 atm), height growth ceases. Height and diameter growth are significantly reduced by a late spring and summer drought, which also reduces early height growth the following year (37,98,116).

Growth of loblolly pine seedlings in a natural stand is inversely related to overstory stocking of pine and hardwoods. As the proportion of hardwoods increases for a given pine stocking, loblolly pine seedling growth decreases. Size and shape of openings affect seedling growth up to 9 m (30 ft) from edges of openings. Seedlings growing beneath overstory hardwoods are not likely to survive more than a few years and if they do survive their growth will be slow. Growth and survival of loblolly pine seedlings during the first 7 years after a stand is regenerated may be reduced by 80 percent because of the faster growth of competing hardwood sprouts and shrubs. Pine seedlings not overtopped by hardwoods at age 3 or older have an excellent chance to outgrow the hardwood competition (37).

Photosynthesis in loblolly pine seedlings is related to light and soil moisture conditions, which in turn are affected by competing hardwoods. Photosynthetic rates of many hardwoods are inherently higher than those of loblolly pine at relatively low light intensities and with low soil moisture (37).

Fertilization often increases seedling growth in waterlogged soils. In some instances where specific nutrients are limiting growth, fertilization results in growth equal to or greater than that with drainage. Loblolly pine grows well on wet, fertile sites because of the effects of moisture on nutrient availability (63,101).

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Soils and Topography

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Soils within the native range of loblolly pine are predominantly Ultisols. Small areas of Entisols and Spodosols are found in the Southeastern States and there are some Alfisols throughout the region. Loblolly pine grows on a wide variety of these soils, ranging from the flat, poorly drained Aquults and Aquods of the coastal portion of the Atlantic Plain to the relatively dry Psamments, Udults, and Udalfs of the inland portion of the Atlantic Plain, Piedmont, and upland Provinces (107). Best growth is on moderately acid soils with imperfect to poor surface drainage, a thick medium-textured surface layer, and a fine-textured subsoil. These soils are common in the uplands of the Atlantic Plain and on the flood plains and terraces of rivers and streams. Poorest performance is on shallow soils, eroded soils, and very wet or waterlogged sites (37).

Some typical examples of Ultisols on which loblolly pine grows include the Coxville, Bladen, Beauregard, Wahee, Dunbar, Ruston, Norfolk, Orangeburg, and Smithdale series found in the Atlantic Plain; the Cecil, Davidson, and Appling series in the Piedmont; and the Hartsells and Linker series in the upland Provinces. Ultisols have a site index measured at base age 50 years for loblolly pine of 23 to 30 m (75 to 100 ft) in the Coastal Plain, 20 to 29 m (65 to 95 ft) in the Piedmont, and 18 to 24 m (60 to 80 ft) in the upland Provinces. Typical Entisols on which loblolly pine is found include deep sands (Chipley, Eustis, and Lakeland series) and alluvial soils (Alpin and Osier series), with a site index ranging from 20 to 30 m (65 to 100 ft). Representative Spodosols include the Leon and Lynn Haven series, with a site index of 18 to 26 m (60 to 85 ft). Within the Atlantic Plain but confined to a strip on each side of the Mississippi River are loessial soils represented by the Memphis, Grenada, Providence, Calhoun, and Henry series. These loessial soils, as well as Caddo, Wrightsville, Meggett, and Bude series, all having a site index ranging from 23 to 34 m (75 to 110 ft), are some representative Alfisols on which loblolly pine grows.

In the Atlantic Plain, the productivity of mineral soils generally decreases with improvement in surface drainage. Productivity is sensitive to soil fertility, however, and if fertility is low on poorly drained sites, productivity decreases (63). The presence of a spodic horizon within the rooting zone, as in the Leon series, frequently is associated with low productivity. Deep, excessively drained sands are also very low in site quality unless a water table or a clay lens which holds moisture lies within reach of the tree roots (37).

In the Piedmont Plateau, where surface drainage is well developed, physical characteristics of the soil, rather than surface drainage, determine the availability of moisture, nutrients, and aeration. Here uneroded soils with a thick surface layer and a friable subsoil have a site index of 24 to 27 m (80 to 90 ft). Common series in this category are Appling, Durham, Davidson, Georgeville, and Cecil. The least productive sites are eroded soils with a very plastic subsoil such as the Orange and Iredell series. When the A horizon is gone, site index is less than 12 m (40 ft) (37).

In the Ridge and Valley Provinces loblolly pine site index of 18 to 26 m (60 to 85 ft) generally increases from ridge tops to bottoms. This variation is related to landform, slope position and aspect, and geology. Soil features that determine site quality, such as soil temperatures, surface soil thickness, subsoil consistency, and soil moisture, are correlated with topography. However, past land use, differences in soil parent material, and other factors also affect soil profile development and cause variations in site quality independent of topography (92).

Perhaps as significant as the soils on which loblolly pine grows are those soils in the region where loblolly pine does not grow. These are principally Mollisols of the Blackbelt, Entisols of calcareous river bottoms and terraces (that is, soils in the Louisa, Miller, and Precris series characterized by high base saturation and high pH) and Alfisols of the Coastal Prairie of Louisiana and Texas with moderately high base saturation. These soils may also have other unidentified properties which exclude pine (72).

The topography throughout the loblolly pine range varies from flat near the coast to mountainous in the interior highlands. The topography can best be related to the physiographic regions within the loblolly pine range.

The Atlantic Plain is generally flat near the coast but becomes rolling and hilly inland with elevations ranging up to 150 m (500 ft). The Piedmont Plateau is more rolling, with highly developed drainage patterns and generally finer textured soils. Elevations range up to 305 m (1,000 ft) in Georgia. The Ridge and Valley Province is about 64 km (40 mi) wide and extends into the loblolly pine range from southeastern Tennessee into northern Georgia and Alabama. The topography is characterized by a group of valley floors separated by long, narrow, zigzagging ridges; elevations range from about 185 m (600 ft) to about 365 m (1,200 ft). The Cumberland Plateau, which lies just west of the Ridge and Valley Province, is underlaid by massive sandstone and its topography is characterized by winding narrow-crested ridges and narrow valleys. In some places the sandstone has given rise to local upland flats and mesa-like forms or knobs. Elevations range from 150 m (500 ft) in the southern part of the region and in the valley floors to 305 m (1,000 ft) at the northern end of the region and on ridge tops. The topography of the Highland Rim that extends into south-central Tennessee and northern Alabama is undulating with depressions and low domes where elevations range from 150 to 245 m (500 to 800 ft).

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Special Uses

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Natural loblolly pine stands as well as intensively managed plantations provide habitat for a variety of game and nongame wildlife species. The primary game species that inhabit pine and pine-hardwood forests include white-tailed deer, gray and fox squirrel, bobwhite quail, wild turkey, mourning doves, and rabbits (94). Some of these species utilize the habitat through all stages of stand development, while others are attracted for only a short time during a particular stage of development. For example, a loblolly pine plantation can provide forage for deer only from the time of planting to crown closure. Without modifying management practices, this usually occurs in 8 to 10 years (13). Bobwhite tend to use the plantation until a decline in favored food species occurs (20). As the habitat deteriorates, deer and quail usually move to mature pine or pine-hardwood forests (47) or to other newly established plantations. Management modifications such as wider planting spacing and early and frequent thinnings will delay crown closure, and periodic prescribed bums will stimulate wildlife food production.

Wild turkeys inhabit upland pine and pine-hardwood forests and do particularly well on large tracts of mature timber with frequent openings and where prescribed burning is conducted (96,97).

Pine lands are the chief habitat for some birds such as the pine warbler, brown-headed nuthatch, and Bachman's warbler. Old-growth stands are very important to the existence of the red-cockaded woodpecker. Large loblolly pine trees are favorite roosting places for many birds and provide an important nesting site for ospreys and the bald eagle (46).

In urban forestry, loblolly pines often are used as shade trees and for wind and noise barriers throughout the South. They also have been used extensively for soil stabilization and control of areas subject to severe surface erosion and gullying. Loblolly pine provides rapid growth and site occupancy and good litter production for these purposes (114,115).

Biomass for energy is currently being obtained from precommercial thinnings and from logging residue in loblolly pine stands. Utilization of these energy sources will undoubtedly increase, and loblolly pine energy plantations may become a reality.

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Vegetative Reproduction

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Young loblolly pine seedlings up to 3 years of age may sprout from buds in axils of primary needles if tops are clipped off, but older trees will not produce basal sprouts at root collars if stems are cut or top-killed by fire, nor do they produce root sprouts. Rooting is related to tree age and is more successful with cuttings from younger trees. Techniques and materials used to root cuttings are of critical importance. For example, a fine mist over the rooting bench is better than a heavy mist, and Hare's powder is a better compound to use than indolebutyric acid when rooting loblolly pine cuttings. Although needle bundles and buds of loblolly pine have been rooted, the success rate has been low. Air layering, a modification of rooting cuttings, has been the more successful method of the two. Success rates have been high for young trees but older trees are more difficult to air layer (29,42,48,110).

Grafting is the most common method of vegetative propagation used to produce genetically uniform trees, especially in seed orchards. Grafting success is usually high but varies with scion material because problems may develop from incompatibility of scion and root stock (29,37,66).

Producing genetically uniform plantlets from tissue cultures is a promising technique, and research is underway to develop procedures for the commercial production of loblolly pine clones (19,94).

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Distribution

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The native range of loblolly pine extends through 14 States from southern New Jersey south to central Florida and west to eastern Texas. It includes the Atlantic Plain, the Piedmont Plateau, and the southern extremities of the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, and the Valley and Ridge Provinces of the Appalachian Highlands. Loblolly pine does not grow naturally in the Mississippi River flood plain and is scarce in the deep, coarse sands of the lower Atlantic Plain and sandhills of North and South Carolina; it is important only in localized areas in southeastern Georgia and northern Florida (37,55,69).

Loblolly pine is an adaptable species that has been successfully planted along the periphery of its natural range and has been introduced on other continents with varying degrees of success.


- The native range of loblolly pine.

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Brief Summary

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Pinaceae -- Pine family

James B. Baker and 0. Gordon Langdon

Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), also called Arkansas pine, North Carolina pine, and oldfield pine, is the most commercially important forest species in the southern United States, where it is dominant on about 11.7 million ha (29 million acres) and makes up over one-half of the standing pine volume. It is a medium-lived, intolerant to moderately tolerant tree with rapid juvenile growth. The species responds well to silvicultural treatments and can be managed as either even-aged or uneven-aged natural stands, or can be regenerated artificially and managed in plantations.

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Physical Description

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Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves > 10 cm long, Leaves yellow-green above, Leaves yellow-green below, Leaves not blue-green, Needle-like leaves somewhat rounded, Needle-like leaves not twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 2, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 3, Needle-like leaf sheath persistent, Twigs glabrous, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds red, Seeds brown, Seeds winged, Seeds unequally winged, Seed wings prominent, Seed wings equal to or broader than body.
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Pinus taeda

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Pinus taeda, commonly known as loblolly pine, is one of several pines native to the Southeastern United States, from East Texas to Florida, and north to southern New Jersey.[2] The wood industry classifies the species as a southern yellow pine.[3] U.S. Forest Service surveys found that loblolly pine is the second-most common species of tree in the United States, after red maple.[4] For its timber, the pine species is regarded as the most commercially important tree in the Southeastern U.S.[5][6][7] The common name loblolly is given because the pine species is found mostly in lowlands and swampy areas.[8]

Loblolly pine is the first among over 100 species of Pinus to have its complete genome sequenced. As of March 2014, it was the organism having the largest sequenced genome size. Its genome, with 22 billion base pairs, is seven times larger than that of humans.[9][10] As of 2018, assembly of the axolotl genome (32Gb) displaced loblolly pine as the largest assembled genome.[11]

Description

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Mature unopened female cones

Loblolly pine can reach a height of 30–35 meters (98–115 feet) with a diameter of 0.4–1.5 m (1.3–4.9 ft). Exceptional specimens may reach 50 m (160 ft) tall, the largest of the southern pines. Its needles are in bundles of three, sometimes twisted, and measure 12–22 centimeters (4+348+34 inches) long, an intermediate length for southern pines, shorter than those of the longleaf pine or slash pine, but longer than those of the shortleaf pine and spruce pine. The needles usually last up to two years before they fall, which gives the species its evergreen character.

Although some needles fall throughout the year due to severe weather, insect damage, and drought, most needles fall during the autumn and winter of their second year. The seed cones are green, ripening pale buff-brown, 7–13 cm (2+34–5 in) in length, 2–3 cm (341+14 in) broad when closed, opening to 4–6 cm (1+122+14 in) wide, each scale bearing a sharp spine 3 to 6 millimeters (18 to 14 in) long.[2][12]

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Bark on a mature tree

The tallest loblolly pine currently known, which is 51.4 m (169 ft) tall, and the largest, which measures 42 cubic meters (1,500 cubic feet) in volume, are in Congaree National Park.[13]

Etymology & Taxonomy

The word "loblolly" is a combination of "lob", referring to thick, heavy bubbling of cooking porridge, and "lolly", an old British dialect word for broth, soup, or any other food boiled in a pot. In the southern United States, the word is used to mean "a mudhole; a mire," a sense derived from an allusion to the consistency of porridge. Hence, the pine is named as it is generally found in lowlands and swampy areas.[8] Loblolly pines grow well in acidic clay soil, which is common throughout the South, thus are often found in large stands in rural places.

Other old names, now rarely used, include oldfield pine due to its status as an early colonizer of abandoned fields; bull pine due to its size (several other yellow pines are also often so named, especially large isolated specimens); rosemary pine due to loblolly's distinctive fragrance compared to the other southern pines; and North Carolina pine.[14]

For the scientific name, Pinus is the Latin name for the pines and taeda refers to the resinous wood.[15]

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A gigantic old-growth loblolly pine, note human for scale

Ecology

With the advent of wildfire suppression, loblolly pine has become prevalent in some parts of the Deep South that were once dominated by longleaf pine and, especially in northern Florida, slash pine.[16]

Its rate of growth is rapid, even among the generally fast-growing southern pines. The yellowish, resinous wood is prized for lumber, but is also used for wood pulp. This tree is commercially grown in extensive plantations.[3]

Loblolly pine is the pine of the Lost Pines Forest around Bastrop, Texas, and in McKinney Roughs along the Texas Colorado River. These are isolated populations on areas of acidic sandy soil, surrounded by alkaline clays that are poor for pine growth.

A study using loblolly pines showed that higher atmospheric carbon dioxide levels may help the trees to endure ice storms better.[17]

Notable trees

The famous "Eisenhower Tree" on the 17th hole of Augusta National Golf Club was a loblolly pine. U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, an Augusta National member, hit the tree so many times that at a 1956 club meeting, he proposed that it be cut down. Not wanting to offend the President, the club's chairman, Clifford Roberts, immediately adjourned the meeting rather than reject the request outright. In February 2014, an ice storm severely damaged the Eisenhower Tree. The opinion of arborists was that the tree could not be saved and should be removed, which it subsequently was.[18]

The "Morris Pine" is located in southeastern Arkansas; it is over 300 years old with a diameter of 142 cm (56 in) and a height of 35.7 m (117 ft).[19]

Loblolly pine seeds were carried aboard the Apollo 14 flight. On its return, the seeds were planted in several locations in the US, including the grounds of the White House. As of 2016, a number of these moon trees remain alive.[20]

Genome

Pines are the most common conifers and the genus Pinus consists of more than 100 species. Sequencing of their genomes remained a huge challenge because of the high complexity and size.[21] Loblolly pine became the first species with its complete genome sequenced.[9][22] This was the largest genome assembled until 2018, when the axolotl genome (32Gb) was assembled.[11]

The loblolly pine genome is made up of 22.18 billion base pairs, which is more than seven times that of humans.[10] Conifer genomes are known to be full of repetitive DNA, which make up 82% of the genome in loblolly pine (compared to only 50% in humans). The number of genes is estimated at about 50,172, of which 15,653 are already confirmed. Most of the genes are duplicates. Some genes have the longest introns observed among fully sequenced plant genomes.[23]

Inbreeding depression

Gymnosperms are predominantly outcrossing, but lack genetic self-incompatibility. Loblolly pine, like most gymnosperms, exhibits high levels of inbreeding depression, especially in the embryonic stage. The loblolly pine harbors an average load of at least eight lethal equivalents.[24] A lethal equivalent is the number of deleterious genes per haploid genome whose cumulative effect is the equivalent of one lethal gene. The presence of at least eight lethal equivalents implies substantial inbreeding depression upon self-fertilization.

See also

References

  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus taeda". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T42420A2978958. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42420A2978958.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b Kral, Robert (1993). "Pinus taeda". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 2. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  3. ^ a b Baker, James B.; Langdon, 0. Gordon (1990). "Pinus taeda". In Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H. (eds.). Conifers. Silvics of North America. Washington, D.C.: United States Forest Service (USFS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Vol. 1 – via Southern Research Station.
  4. ^ Nix, Steve. "Ten Most Common Trees in the United States". About.com Forestry. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
  5. ^ "Loblolly Pine". Plant Information Center. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  6. ^ "Loblolly pine". Virginia Tech Forestry Department. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  7. ^ "Loblolly Pine". Tree Improvement Programme. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  8. ^ a b The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000.
  9. ^ a b Zimin, A.; Stevens, K. A.; Crepeau, M. W.; Holtz-Morris, A.; Koriabine, M.; Marcais, G.; Puiu, D.; Roberts, M.; Wegrzyn, J. L.; de Jong, P. J.; Neale, D. B.; Salzberg, S. L.; Yorke, J. A.; Langley, C. H. (2014). "Sequencing and Assembly of the 22-Gb Loblolly Pine Genome". Genetics. 196 (3): 875–890. doi:10.1534/genetics.113.159715. PMC 3948813. PMID 24653210.
  10. ^ a b Main, Douglas (20 March 2014). "Scientists Sequence The Largest Genome To Date". Popular Science. A Bonnier Corporation Company. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  11. ^ a b Eugene W. Myers, Sergej Nowoshilow (2018). "The axolotl genome and the evolution of key tissue formation regulators". Nature. 554 (7690): 50–55. Bibcode:2018Natur.554...50N. doi:10.1038/nature25458. PMID 29364872.
  12. ^ Farjon, A. (2005). Pines: Drawings and Descriptions of the Genus Pinus, ed.2. Brill, Leiden ISBN 90-04-13916-8.
  13. ^ Earle, Christopher J., ed. (2018). "Pinus taeda". The Gymnosperm Database.
  14. ^ Moore, Gerry; Kershner, Bruce; Tufts, Craig; Mathews, Daniel; Nelson, Gil; Spellenberg, Richard; Thieret, John W.; Purinton, Terry; Block, Andrew (2008). National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America. New York: Sterling. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4027-3875-3.
  15. ^ "Oklahoma Biological Survey: Pinus taeda L." Archived from the original on 2010-06-22. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
  16. ^ Richardson, D. M., & Rundel, P. W. (1998). Ecology and biogeography of Pinus: an introduction. Pages 3–46 in Richardson, D. M., ed. Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-55176-5.
  17. ^ Greenhouse Gas Good for Some Trees - LiveScience.com
  18. ^ Boyette, John (February 16, 2014). "Masters landmark Ike's Tree suffers major damage, removed". The Augusta Chronicle. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  19. ^ Bragg, Don C. "The Morris Pine" (PDF). Bulletin of the Eastern Native Tree Society. Volume 1 (Summer 2006): 20. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
  20. ^ Williams, David R. (28 July 2009). "The "Moon Trees"". Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  21. ^ Neves, Leandro G.; Davis, John M.; Barbazuk, William B.; Kirst, Matias (2013). "Whole-exome targeted sequencing of the uncharacterized pine genome". The Plant Journal. 75 (1): 146–156. doi:10.1111/tpj.12193. PMID 23551702.
  22. ^ Neale, David B; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Stevens, Kristian A; Zimin, Aleksey V; Puiu, Daniela; Crepeau, Marc W; Cardeno, Charis; Koriabine, Maxim; Holtz-Morris, Ann E; Liechty, John D; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A; Lin, Brian Y; Zieve, Jacob J; Dougherty, William M; Fuentes-Soriano, Sara; Wu, Le-Shin; Gilbert, Don; Marçais, Guillaume; Roberts, Michael; Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark; Davis, John M; Smith, Katherine E; Dean, Jeffrey FD; Lorenz, W Walter; Whetten, Ross W; Sederoff, Ronald; Wheeler, Nicholas; McGuire, Patrick E; Main, Doreen; Loopstra, Carol A; Mockaitis, Keithanne; deJong, Pieter J; Yorke, James A; Salzberg, Steven L; Langley, Charles H (2014). "Decoding the massive genome of loblolly pine using haploid DNA and novel assembly strategies". Genome Biology. 15 (3): R59. doi:10.1186/gb-2014-15-3-r59. PMC 4053751. PMID 24647006.
  23. ^ Wegrzyn, J. L.; Liechty, J. D.; Stevens, K. A.; Wu, L.-S.; Loopstra, C. A.; Vasquez-Gross, H. A.; Dougherty, W. M.; Lin, B. Y.; Zieve, J. J.; Martinez-Garcia, P. J.; Holt, C.; Yandell, M.; Zimin, A. V.; Yorke, J. A.; Crepeau, M. W.; Puiu, D.; Salzberg, S. L.; de Jong, P. J.; Mockaitis, K.; Main, D.; Langley, C. H.; Neale, D. B. (2014). "Unique Features of the Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Megagenome Revealed Through Sequence Annotation". Genetics. 196 (3): 891–909. doi:10.1534/genetics.113.159996. PMC 3948814. PMID 24653211.
  24. ^ Remington DL, O'Malley DM (2000). "Whole-genome characterization of embryonic stage inbreeding depression in a selfed loblolly pine family". Genetics. 155 (1): 337–48. doi:10.1093/genetics/155.1.337. PMC 1461072. PMID 10790407.

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Pinus taeda: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Pinus taeda, commonly known as loblolly pine, is one of several pines native to the Southeastern United States, from East Texas to Florida, and north to southern New Jersey. The wood industry classifies the species as a southern yellow pine. U.S. Forest Service surveys found that loblolly pine is the second-most common species of tree in the United States, after red maple. For its timber, the pine species is regarded as the most commercially important tree in the Southeastern U.S. The common name loblolly is given because the pine species is found mostly in lowlands and swampy areas.

Loblolly pine is the first among over 100 species of Pinus to have its complete genome sequenced. As of March 2014, it was the organism having the largest sequenced genome size. Its genome, with 22 billion base pairs, is seven times larger than that of humans. As of 2018, assembly of the axolotl genome (32Gb) displaced loblolly pine as the largest assembled genome.

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